J. B. BURY’ CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY. VOLUME I

THE CHRISTIAN ROMAN EMPIRE

AND THE FOUNDATION

OF THE TEUTONIC KINGDOMS 300-500

 

 

 

I.- CONSTANTINE AND HIS CITY. H . M . Gwatkin

 

II.-THE REORGANISATION OF THE EMPIRE J. S. R eid

 

III.-CONSTANTINE'S SUCCESSORS TO JOVIAN: AND THE STRUGGLE WITH PERSIA Norman H. Baynes

 

IV.-THE TRIUMPH OF CHRISTIANITY T. M. L indsay

 

V.-ARIANISM H . M . Gwatkin

 

VI.-THE ORGANISATION OF THE CHURCH C. H. Turner

 

VII.-EXPANSION OF THE TEUTONS (To A.D. 378) Martin Bang,

 

VIII.-THE DYNASTY OF VALENTINIAN AND THEODOSIUS THE GREAT Norman H . B aynes

 

IX.-THE TEUTONIC MIGRATIONS, 378-412 M. Manitius

 

X.-THE VISIGOTHS TO THE DEATH OF EURIC . THE FRANKS BEFORE CLOVIS Dr Ludwig Schmidt & M. C hristian Pfistkr

 

XI.-THE SUEVES, ALANS, AND VANDALS IN SPAIN, 409-429 Ludwig Schmidt

 

XII.-THE HUNS: THE ASIATIC BACKGROUND. ATTILA T. PeisKen & Ludwig Schmidt

 

XIII.-ROMAN BRITAIN F. J. Havekfield & F. G. M. Beck

 

XIV.-ITALY AND THE WEST, 410-476 Ernest Barker

 

XV.-THE KINGDOM OF ITALY UNDER ODOVACAR AND THEODORIC Maurice Dumoulin

 

XVI.-THE EASTERN PROVINCES FROM ARCADIUS TO ANASTASIUS E. W . Brooks

 

XVII.-RELIGIOUS DISUNION IN THE FIFTH CENTURY. Nestorius. Alice Gardner

 

XVIII.- MONASTICISM E. C. Butler

 

XIX.-SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE FOURTH CENTURY Paul Vinogradoff

 

XX.-THOUGHTS AND IDEAS OF THE PERIOD H . F. Stewart

 

XXI. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART W . R . Lethaby

 

 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF LEADING EVENTS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME

 

284 Election of Diocletian (17 Sept.).

297 Peace with Persia: acquisition of the five provinces.

303 The Great Persecucion (24 Feb.).

305 Abdication of Diocletian (1 May).

306 Elevation of Constantine at York.

309-380 Reign of Sapor II in Persia.

311 Edict of Toleration and death of Galerius

312 Battle of Saxa Rubra (28 Sept.).

Edict of Milan.

323 Battle of Chrysopolis (Sept.).

325 Council of Nicaea.

328-373 Athanasius Bishop of Alexandria.

330 Foundation of Constantinople.

337 Death of Constantipe (22 May).

War with Persia.

339 Second Exile of Athanasius.

341 Council of the Dedication at Antioch.

343 Council of Sardica.

346 Return of Athanasius.

350 Revolt of Magnentius

352 Battle of Mursa.

355 Julian made Caesar for Gaul.

356 Third Exile of Athanasius.

357 Battle of Argentoratum.

359 Councils of Ariminum and Seleucia

360 Mutiny at Paris: Julian proclaimed Augustus.

Council of Constantinople.

361-363 Julian Emperor.

363-364 Jovian Emperor. Peace with Persia : cession of the five provinces. 364 Valentinian and Valens Emperors.

369 Count Theodosias in Britain.

374- 397 Ambrose Bishop of Milan.

375- 383 Gratian Emperor in the West.

376 Passage of the Danube by the Goths.

378 Battle of Hadrianople (9 Aug.).

379-395 Reign of Theodosius.

381 Council of Constantinople.

383-388 Usurpation of Maximus.

386 Execution of Priscillian.

390 Destruction of the Serapeum.

392 Revolt of Arhbogast.

394 Battle of the Frigidus (6 Sept.).

395 Arcadius and Honorius Emperors.

400 Revolt of Gainas.

402 Battle of Pollentia.

406 Passage of the Rhine by the Germans (31 Dec.).

407 Withdrawal of the legions from Britain.

408-450 Reign of Theodosius II in the East.

408 Mutiny at Pavia. Execution of Stilicho.

410 Sack of Romo by Alaric (23 Aug.).

412 The Visigoths in Gaul.

418 Rescript of Honorius to Agricola.

425-455 Valentinian III Emperor in the West

429 The Vandals in Africa.

430 Death of Augustine.

431 Council of Ephesus.

438 Codex Theodoxianus. Legal separation of East and West

439 Capture of Carthage by the Vandals.

440-461 Pope Leo I.

445 Edict of Valentinian III.

449 The Latrocinium at Ephesus.

c. 449 Traditional date of Hengest and Horsi

450-458 Marciau Emperor in the East.

451 Council of Chalcedon. Battle of the Mauriac Plain.

452 Destruction of Aquileia by Attila. Embassy of Pope Leo

454 Assassination of Aetius.

455 Sack of Rome by Gaiseric.

457-461 Reign of Majorian in the West.

468 Failure of Basiliscus before Carthage.

472 Capture of Rome by Ricimer.

474-491 Zeno Emperor in the East.

476 Deposition of Romulus Augustulus.

Odovacar master of Italy till 493.

481 The Henotieon of Zeno. Schism in the Church.

481-511 Reign of Clovis.

486 Clovis defeats Syagrius.

491-5l8 Anastasius Emperor.

493-526 Reign of Theodoric in Italy.

507 Battle of Vougle. Clovis conquers Aquitaine.

518 Justin Emperor. End of the Schism.

533 Conquest of Africa by Belisarius.

597 Landing of Augustine. Death of Columba (9 June).

 

 

THE present volume covers a space of about two hundred years beginning with Constantine and stopping a little short of Justinian. At its opening the Roman Empire is standing in its ancient majesty, drawing new strength from the reforms of Diocletian and the statesmanship of Constantine : at its close the Empire has vanished from the West, while the East is slowly recovering from the pressure of the barbarians in the fifth century, and gathering strength for Justinian’s wars of conquest. At its opening heathenism is still a mighty power, society is built up on heathen pride of class, and Rome still seems the centre of the world: at its ending we see Christianity supreme, Constantinople the seat of power, and the old heathen order of society in the West dissolving in the confusion of barbarian devastations. At its opening Caesar’s will is law from the Atlantic to Armenia : at its ending a great system of Teutonic and Arian kingdoms in the West has just been grievously shaken by the conversion of the franks from heathenism direct to orthodoxy.

In our first chapter we trace the rise of Constantine, his reunion of the Empire, his conversion to Christianity, the political side of the Nicene Council, and the foundation of Constantinople. 

Then follows Dr Reid’s account of the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine, which fixed for centuries the general outline of the administration. 

After this Mr Norman Baynes takes up the struggle with Persia under Constantius and Julian, and continues in a later chapter the story of the wars of Rome in East and West in the times of Valentinian and Theodosius.

The victory of Christianity is treated by Principal Lindsay; and he describes also the rival systems of Neoplatonism and Mithraism, and gives an account of Julian’s reaction and the last struggles of heathenism.

The next chapter is devoted to Arianism. First the doctrine is described, in itself and in some of its relations to modern thought; then the religious side of the Nicene Council is given, and the complicated history of the reaction is traced down to the decisive overthrow of Arianism in the Empire by Theodosius. 

After this Mr C. H. Turner describes the organisation of the Church clergy, creeds and worship looking back to the beginning, but chiefly concerned with its development in the age of the great Councils.

We now pass to tlie Teutons. Dr Martin Bang begins in prehistoric times, describing their migrations and their conquests westward and southward till the legions brought them to a stand on the Rhine and the Danube, and their long struggle of four centuries to break through the Roman frontier before the battle of Hadrianople settled them inside the Danube.

Then Dr Manitius carries down the story through the administrations of Theodosius and Stilicho to the great collapse the passing of the Rhine, the overrunning of Gaul and Spain, the Roman mutiny of Pavia, and the sack of Rome by Alaric. After this the great Teutonic peoples have to be dealt with severally. 

Dr Ludwig Schmidt begins with the settlement of the Visigoths in Gaul, traces the growth and culmination of their kingdom of Toulouse, and ends with their expulsion from Aquitaine by Clovis.

Professor Pfister gives the early history of the Franks; but they are still a feeble folk when he leaves, them, for the conquests of Clovis belong to another volume.

Then Dr Schmidt tells the little that is known of the Sueves and Alans in Spain, and more fully describes the history and institutions of the Vandal kingdom in Africa to its destruction by Belisarius.

Our next chapter differs from the rest in containing very little history. It is Dr Peisker’s account of Central Asia and the Altaian mounted nomads. It is given as a general (and much needed) introduction to the chapters on the Huns, the Avars, the Turks, and the rest of the Asiatic hordes who devastated Europe in the Middle Ages. To this is attached Dr Schmidt’s short account of the Huns and Attila.

We next turn to our own country.

Professor Haverfield describes the conquest and organisation of Roman Britain, and the decline and fall of the Roman power in the island, while Mr Beck deals with the English in their continental home, and tells the story of their settlement in Britain from the English side.

After this Mr Barker records the last struggles of the Western Empirethe loyalty of Gaul and the disaffection of Africaunder Aetius and Majorian, concluding with the barbarian mutiny at Pavia which overthrew the last Augustus of the West.

Then M Maurice Dumoulin continues the history of Italy under the barbarian rule of Odovacar and Theodoric, describing the great king’s policy, and showing how he kept in check for awhile the feud of Roman and barbarian which had wrecked the Western Empire.

Turning now to the Eastern provinces, the fifth century, which falls to Mr Brooks, is upon the whole a prosaic period of second-rate rulers and dire financial strain. Yet even here we have striking events, remarkable characters, and important movements the fall of Rufinus and the failure of Gainas; Pulcheria ruling the Empire as a girl of sixteen, the romance of Athenais, and the catastrophe of Basiliscus; the Isaurian policy of Leo, and the reforms of Anastasius.

Then Miss Alice Gardner traces the history of religious disunion in the East. The fall of Chrysostom brought to the front the rivalry of Constantinople and Alexandria, the defeat of Nestorianism at Ephesus and of Monophysitism at Chalcedon fixed the lines of orthodoxy, but left Egypt and Syria heterodox and disaffected, and the reconciling Henoticon of Zeno produced nothing but a new schism.

In the next chapter Dom Butler traces the growth of monasticism and its various forms in East and West, including the Benedictine rule and the Irish monks.

After this Professor Vinogradoff surveys the whole field of social and economic conditions in the declining Empire, and shews the part which rotten economics and bad taxation played in its destruction.

Then Mr H. F. Stewart gives his account of the heathen and Christian literature of the time, and of the various lines of thought which seemed to converge upon the grand figure of Augustine. The volume concludes with Mr Lethaby’s account of the beginnings and early development of Christian art.

Shortly : to the student of universal history the Roman Empire is the bulwark which for near six hundred years kept back the ever threatening attacks of Teutonic and Altaian barbarism. Behind that bulwark rose the mighty structure of Roman Law, and behind it a new order of the world was beginning to unfold from the fruitful seeds of Christian thought. So when the years of respite ended, and the universal Empire went down in universal ruin, the Christian Church was able from the first to put some check on the northern conquerors, and then by the long training of the Middle Ages to mould the nations of Europe into forms which have issued in richer and fuller developments of life and civilisation than imperial Rome had ever known.

It remains for us to give our best thanks to Dr A. W. Ward for much counsel and assistance, and to all those who have kindly helped us by looking over the proofs of particular chapters.

H. M. G.

J. P. W.

September 1911

 

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