CHAPTERS OF MODERN HISTORY

 

THE CAMBRIDGE MODERN HISTORY

VOLUME V

THE AGE OF LOUIS XIV

 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF LEADING EVENTS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME

 

1133. Albert the Bear.

1147. Foundation of Moscow.

1240. Foundation of Berlin

 

TABLE OF CHAPTERS

 

I.   THE GOVERNMENT OF LOUIS XIV (1661—1715.) By A. J. Grant.

 

THE REVOCATION OF THE EDICT OF NANTES AND ITS EFFECTS By SAMUEL SMILES.

 

II. THE FOREIGN POLICY OF LOUIS XIV (1661-97.) By Arthur Hassall

 

III. FRENCH SEVENTEENTH CENTURY LITERATURE AND ITS EUROPEAN INFLUENCE. By Emile Faguet

 

IV. THE GALLICAN CHURCH. By Viscount St Cyres

 

V. THE STEWART RESTORATION. By C. H. FiRth

 

VI. THE LITERATURE OF THE ENGLISH RESTORATION, INCLUDING MILTON. By Harold H. Child

 

VII. THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF JOHN DE WITT AND WILLIAM OF ORANGE. (1651-88.) By the Rev. George Edmundson

 

VIII. THE ANGLO-DUTCH WARS. (1) Nava Administration under Charles II and JaMes II. By J. R. Tanner  (2) The Wars (1664-74). By C. T. Atkinson

 

IX. THE POLICY OF CHARLES II AND JAMES II. (1667-87.) By John Pollock

 

CHAPTER X. THE REVOLUTION AND THE REVOLUTION SETTLEMENT IN GREAT BRITAIN.

(1)  England. (1687—1702.) By H. W. V. Temperley

 (2)  Scotland from the Restoration to the Union oF the Parliaments. (1660—1707.) By P. Hume Brown

 (3)   Ireland from the Restoration to the Act oF Resumption. (1660—1700.) By Robert Dunlop

 

1692 February. Massacre of Glencoe.

 

XI. RELIGIOUS TOLERATION IN ENGLAND. By the Rev. H. M. Gwatkin

 

XII. AUSTRIA, POLAND, AND TURKEY. By Richard Lodge

 

XIII. THE TREATIES OF PARTITION AND THE SPANISH SUCCESSION. By Professor Dr Wolfgang Michael

 

XIV. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.

(1) Campaigns and Negotiations. By C. T. Atkinson

(2) The Peace oF UtRecht and the Supplementary Pacifications. By A. W. Ward

 

XV. PARTY GOVERNMENT UNDER QUEEN ANNE. By H. W. V. Temperley,

 

XVI. RUSSIA. (1462—1682.) By J. B. Bury

 

XVII. PETER THE GREAT AND HIS PUPILS. (1689—1730.) By R. Nisbet Bain

 

XVIII. THE SCANDINAVIAN KINGDOMS. By W. F. Reddaway

 

XIX. CHARLES XII AND THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR. By R. Nisbet Bain.

 

XX. THE ORIGINS OF THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA. By Dr A. W. Ward.

 

XXI. THE GREAT ELECTOR AND THE FIRST PRUSSIAN KING. By Dr A. W. Ward.

 

XXII. THE COLONIES AND INDIA. (1) The Colonies By E. A. Benians 2) India. By P, E. Roberts

 

XXIII. EUROPEAN SCIENCE IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EARLIER YEARS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES. (1)   Mathematical and Physical Science, By W, W. Rouse Ball. (2)   Other branches of Science. By the late Sir Michael Foster

 

XXIV. LATITUDINARIANISM AND PIETISM.By the Rev. M. Kaufmann

 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

OF

LEADING EVENTS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME

 

1133 The Saxon North Mark (Brandenburg) conferred upon Albert the Bear.

1147 Foundation of Moscow.

1186 The Brandenburg Margraves establish a claim on Pomerania. 1226 The Margraves of Brandenburg acquire the Spree district.1240 Foundation of Berlin. 1255 Building of Konigsberg.

1311 The German Order secures Danzig.

1324-73 The Mark Brandenburg subject to the House of Wittelsbach.

1343 Peace of Kalisch between the German Order and Poland.

1374 The Mark Brandenburg united to the Bohemian Crown.

1385-8 Brandenburg mortgaged to the Margraves of Moravia.

1410 Polish victory over the German Knights at Tannenberg.

1411 First Peace of Thorn between Poland and the German Order.

1417 Investment of Frederick of Hohenzollem with the margravate of Brandenburg.

1466 The Second or Perpetual Peace of Thorn between Poland and the German Order.

1472 Marriage of Ivan III of Russia and the Greek Princess Sophia.

1473 February. The Brandenburg Dispositio Achillea.

1525 Albert of Hohenzollem, formerly High Master of the German Order, invested with the secularised duchy of Prussia.

Giovio’s Muscovy.

1533 Accession of Ivan IV, afterwards crowned Tsar (1547).

1543 Vesalius on Human Anatomy.

1550 Ivan IV summons the Sobor.

1552 Russian annexation of Kazan.

1553 Sir Hugh Willoughby’s expedition for the discovery of the Northern Passage. Foundation of the English “Muscovy Company.”

1554 Russian annexation of Astrakhan.

1558-78 Gregory Stroganoff carries Russian colonisation beyond the Ural Mountains.

1560 The Academia Secretorum Naturae founded at Naples.

1561 Gottfried Kettler, last High Master of the German Order in Livonia, becomes Duke of Courland.

1566 Administration of the see of Magdeburg secured to Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg.

1569 Union of Poland and Lithuania at Lublin.

1582-4 The Cossack Ermak Timotheevich captures Sibir. Russian subjugation of Siberia follows.

1589 Foundation of Patriarchate of Moscow.

1589-91 Galileo at Pisa lays foundation of the science of Dynamics.

1591 Francis Vieta publishes his algebraic work.

1592 Death of Montaigne

THE LIFE-WORK OF MONTAIGNE (1533-1592)

1595 May. Peace of Teusin between Russia, Sweden, and Poland.

1605 Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg obtains administratorship of ducal Prussia.

Bacon’s Advancement of Learning. Arndt’s Four Books.

1605-6 Rule of Dimitri the Pretender at Moscow.

1608   French colony at Quebec founded by Champlain.

1609 Invasion of Russia by King Sigismund of Poland.

Kepler publishes his development of the Copernican system of astronomy.

1612 Jacob Boehme’s Aurora.

1613 Michael Romanoff elected Tsar.

1614 Treaty of Xanten regulates Brandenburg and Neuburg claims to Julich-Cleves-Berg inheritance.

Napier of Merchistoun on logarithms.

1616 Edict of Inquisition against Galileo’s teaching of astronomy.

1617 Peace of Stolbova between Sweden and Russia.

1618 Union of the duchy of Prussia with Brandenburg.

1620 Bacon’s Novum Organum.

1628 Harvey’s Exercitatio de Motu Cordis.

1632 War between Poland and Russia.

Galileo’s dialogues on the Copernican theory of astronomy.

1634 Treaty of Polianovka between Poland and Russia.

1635 Truce of Stuhmsdorf between Sweden and Poland (including Prussia).

1637 Death of Bogislav XIV of Pomerania. Swedes remain in possession of duchy. Descartes’ Discours. Milton’s Lycidas written.

1638 Death of Cornelius Jansen.

Publication of Chillingworth’s Religion of Protestants.

1640 Death of George William of Brandenburg and accession of Frederick William (the Great Elector).

Posthumous publication of Jansen’s treatise on the theology of St Augustine.

1641 Truce of Stockholm between Brandenburg and Sweden.

Milton’s first pamphlet Of Reformation touching Church discipline in England.

1642 English commercial treaty with Portugal.

Hales’ Schism and Schismatics.

1644 Portuguese rising in Brazil.

1645 Accession of the Tsar Alexis Romanoff.

1646 Jeremy Taylor’s Liberty of Prophesying.—Travels of Olearius.

1648 War between Venice and the Turks. Beginning of siege of Candia.

Accession of Mohammad IV.

Bishoprics of Halberstadt and Minden secured by Brandenburg.

The Russian Sobor draws up a new Code of Laws (Ulozhenie).

1649 Portuguese Brazil Company established.

Condemnation by the Sorbonne of five propositions from Jansen’s Augustinus.

1650-63 Portuguese thrown back by Dutch in Ceylon and Malabar.

1651 English Navigation Act.

English factory established at Hooghley.

Hobbes’ Leviathan.

1652 Abdication of Christina of Sweden and accession of Charles Gustavus. Dutch East India Company form a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope.

1653 John de Witt Grand Pensionary of Holland.

1653 Eastern Pomerania secured by Brandenburg.

Innocent X declares the five Jansenist propositions heretical.

1654 The Prussian League renounces its allegiance to the German Order.

The Dutch expelled from Brazil.

1654-6 Liturgical reforms of Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow.

1655 British capture of Jamaica.

1656 Mohammad Kiuprili Grand Vezir. Revival of the Ottoman Power. Harrington’s Oceana. John Wallis’ Arithmetica Infinitorum.

1656-7 Pascal’s Provincial Letters.

1657 War between the United Provinces and Portugal.

1658 Peace of Roeskilde between Sweden and Denmark.

1659 Stillingfleet’s Irenicon.

1660 February. Death of Charles Gustavus of Sweden.

April-May. The Stewart Restoration.  

May. Peace of Copenhagen between Sweden and Denmark.

October. Establishment of hereditary monarchy in Denmark in the House of Frederick III. Growth of absolutism in Denmark and Norway.

Peace of Oliva. Independence of East Prussia recognised.

1660-73 James, Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England.

1661 January. John Kemenyi Prince of Transylvania. Despatch of Imperial force under Montecuculi against the Turks.

April-May. Savoy Conference.

June. Bombay ceded by Portugal to England.

August. Peace between the United Provinces and Portugal.

September. Reestablishment of the Episcopal Church of Scotland decreed.

November. Ormond appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Death of Mazarin. Beginning of the personal rule of Louis XIV. Defensive alliance and commercial treaty between England and Brandenburg. Ahmad Kiuprili Grand Vezir.

New Charter granted to English East India Company.

The Scottish Rescissory Act English Disciplinary Naval Statute.

Boyle’s Sceptical Chemist.

1662 January. Death of John Kemenyi.

May. English Act of Uniformity.

Restoration of the Scottish Bishops.

June. Reinstitution of lay patronage in Scotland.

August. Secession of St Bartholomew’s Day.

September. ‘Bill for the Settlement of Ireland.

December. Treaty between Portugal and the United Provinces.

The English Company of Royal Adventurers trading to Africa (third Guinea Company) incorporated.

The Royal Society of London incorporated by charter.

1663 October. Settlement between Prussian Estates and the Great Elector.

English expedition to Guinea Coast.

The Turks under Ahmad Kiuprili advance upon western Hungary.

Milton finishes Paradise Lost.

1663-8 Butler’s Hudibras.

1664 February. English seizure of Dutch possessions on the west coast of Africa. Aug. Defeat of the Turks by Montecuculi at St Gothard. Peace of Vasvar. English capture of New Amsterdam (New York).

First French Company trading with India founded. Colbert’s First Tariff. First Conventicle Act passed.

1665 January. De Ruyter recovers Goree from English occupation.

March. War between England and the United Provinces.

1665 June. Battle of Lowestoft.

September. Death of Philip IV of Spain. Accession of Charles II.

Bishop of Munster declares war against United Provinces.

December. Bill for Explanation of the Act of Settlement of Ireland.

Five Mile Act passed. The Plague in London. Dryden’s Essay of Dramatic Poesy.

1665-6  Newton’s discoveries in mathematics, and as to the law of Universal Gravitation.

1666 January. France declares war against England.

June. The “Four Days’ Battle” between the English and Dutch. September. The Great Fire of London.

October. “Quadruple Alliance” of Holland, Denmark, Brandenburg and Brunswick-Luneburg.

Treaty of Cleves. Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg secured by Brandenburg. Religious rising in Scotland put down at Rullion Green.

1666-7  The Raskol (great schism) in the Russian Church breaks out.

1667 February. Dutch conquest of Tobago.

March. Secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV.

May. War of Devolution between Louis XIV and the Spanish Netherlands.

June. Dutch fleet in the Medway.

July. Peace of Breda between England and the United Provinces.

August. Fall of Clarendon.

Treaty of Andrusovo between Poland and Russia.

Colbert issues his increased tariff.

1668 January. Secret treaty between Louis XIV and the Emperor Leopold. Triple Alliance of England, United Provinces, and Sweden, against France.

February. French conquest of Franche Comt&

May. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle between the Allies and France.

Peace between Spain and Portugal. Spanish surrender of Portugal. Bombay handed over to the English East India Company.

1669 Fall of Candia, followed by the cession of Crete to the Turks.

Abdication of John Casimir of Poland; election of Michael Wismowiecki. The “Peace of Clement IX” accorded to the Jansenists.

Stensen lectures at Paris on the Anatomy of the Brain. 

1670 February. Accession of Christian V in Denmark and Norway. Administration of Griffenfeld.

May-June. Secret Treaty of Dover between Louis XIV and Charles II.

British capture of Jamaica recognised by Spain.

Second Conventicle Act passed. 

Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Bossuet's Exposition de la Doctrine Catholique.

1671 John Sobieski elected King of Poland

Administration of the Leeward and Windward Islands settled by the English Government

Paradise regained and Samson Agonistes.Quesnel's Reflexions Morales sur le Nouveau Testament. Malpighi and Grew on Estructural Botany. Testament Malpighi and Grew on Structural Botany.

1672 February, William III of Orange Captain-General of the Dutch Union,

March. Charles II’s Declaration of Indulgence.

War between England and the United Provinces.

April. War between France and the United Provinces.

May. Treaty between Louis XIV and Sweden.

Invasion of the United Provinces by Louis XIV.

Anglo-French naval defeat in Southwold Bay.

1672 June-October. Coalition of the Hague between the Emperor, Brandenburg, and Holland.

July. William of Orange proclaimed Stadholder of Holland and Zeeland. August. Murder of John and Cornelius de Witt at the Hague.

October. Treaty of Buczacz between Poland and Turkey.

Third Guinea Company merged in Royal African Company.

Leibniz’ Concilium Aegyptiacum.

1672-8   War between Turkey and Poland.

1673 March. Charles’ Declaration of Indulgence cancelled. Test Act passed.

June. Dutch naval successes at Schooneveld. French take Maestricht.

August. Battle of the Texel.

November. The Turks defeated by John Sobieski at Khoczim.

1673-4   Spread of the Second Imperial Coalition against France.

1674 February. Treaty of London between England and the United Provinces.

August. Indecisive battle of Seneff between William of Orange and Conde.

December. War between Sweden and Brandenburg.

1675 January. Defeat of the Great Elector at Colmar.

Swedish invasion of Brandenburg.

April. Dutch victory off Messina. Death of de Ruyter.

June. Treaty between France and Poland.

Victory of the Great Elector over the Swedes at Fehrbellin.

July. Death of Turenne.

August. Sobieski defeats the Turks at Lemberg.

Committee of the Privy Council supersedes Council of Trade and Plantations. Bishop Croft’s Naked Truth. Dryden’s Aurengzehe produced.

1675-9 War of Scania between Denmark and Sweden.

1676 June. Danish-Dutch naval victory over the Swedes at Gland.

October. Treaty of Zurawna between Poland and Turkey.

December. Swedish victory at Lund.

Accession of the Tsar Theodore III.

Death of the Grand Vezir Ahmad Kiuprili; succession of Kara Mustafa.

1677 April. Defeat of Orange at Montcassel.

July. Victory of Charles XI of Sweden at Landskrona.

November. Marriage of William of Orange with Princess Mary of England. War between Russia and Turkey.

1678 August. First denunciation of the Popish Plot.

(to February, 1679). Peace of Nymegen.

Emeric Tokolyi becomes the Hungarian national leader.

The French obtain the cession of Goree.

Cudworth’s Intellectual System. Dryden’s All for Love produced.

1679 May. Introduction of the Exclusion Bill.

June. Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye between Brandenburg and Sweden.

Suppression of the Scottish Covenanting revolt at Bothwell Brigg. Treaty of Lund between Denmark and Sweden.

The Habeas Corpus Act passed.

1680 Treaty of Bakchi-serai between Russia and Turkey.

Archbishopric of Magdeburg incorporated with Brandenburg.

Declaration of Sanquhar.

The Exclusion Bill thrown out.

1681 September. French seizure of Strassburg and Casale.

October. Assembly of Gallican Clergy.

Peace between Russia and Turkey.

Filmer’s Patriarcha. Dryden’s Spanish Friar and Absalom and Achitophel.

1682 March. The French Assembly of Clergy defines liberties of Gallican Church.

1682 Accession of Peter the Great. The Tsarevna Sophia Regent.

Outbreak of war between Austria and the Turks.

Brandenburg African Trading Company established at Konigsberg. Privileges of City of London and other towns attacked by the Crown.

1682-90 Sir John Child Governor of Bombay.

1683 February. Association against France formed at the Hague.

June. Rye House plot discovered. Execution of Russell and Sidney.

July. Siege of Vienna by the Turks begun.

September. Relief of Vienna by John Sobieski.

Death of Colbert.

December. War between France and Spain.

1684 March. The Holy League between Austria, Poland, and Venice, against the Turks.

August. Truce of Ratisbon between France and the Empire.

The Apologetical Declaration of the Scottish recusants.

Spener’s Klagen.

1685 February. Death of Charles II of England and accession of James II.

June. Risings of Monmouth and Argyll.

July. Monmouth defeated at Sedgmoor and executed.

August. Treaty of alliance between Great Elector and United Provinces.

Recapture of Neuhausel from the Turks.

October. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

November. Edict of Potsdam.

1685-8 Reforms in English naval administration.

1686 March. Treaty of alliance between the Emperor and the Great Elector.

July. Formation of the Augsburg Alliance.

September. Buda recovered from the Turks.

Leibniz’ on the Calculus.

1687 January. Tyrconnel made Viceroy in Ireland.

Feb.-May. Diplomatic mission of Dykvelt in England.

April. The Declaration of Indulgence issued.

August. Turkish overthrow at Harkany, near Mohacs.

Halifax’ Letter to a Dissenter.

September. Venetian siege and conquest of Athens.

November. Fagel’s letter on Declaration of Indulgence.

December. Restoration of Austrian ascendancy in Hungary. Coronation of Archduke Joseph.

Deposition of Mohammad IV and accession of Solyman II.

Newton’s Principia. Pufendorf’s De habitu religionis ad vitam civilem. Dryden’s Hind and Panther.

1688   May. Death of the Great Elector.

Declaration of Indulgence ordered to be read in churches.

Petition of the Seven Bishops against reading of Declaration. June. Birth of Prince James Edward (afterwards the “Old Pretender”).

Trial and acquittal of the Seven Bishops. Invitation to William, Prince of Orange.

September. The Emperor takes Belgrade.

Army of Louis XIV advances on the middle Rhine. November. Landing of William of Orange at Torbay.

December. William of Orange enters London. Flight of James II, and fell of the House of Stewart.

Bossuet’s Histoire des Variations des Églises Protestantes.

1689   February. Declaration of Right.

William and Mary proclaimed King and Queen of England.

1689 March. Rout of the Irish Protestants at Dromore.

James enters Dublin.

April. Outbreak of war between France and Spain.

The siege of Derry begun.

The Scottish Convention issues Declaration offering the crown to William and Mary.

May. The Grand Alliance formed.

Parliament summoned by James meets at Dublin

The Toleration Act passed

July. Relief of Derry. Defeat of James’ troops at Newtown Butler.

Highland rising under Dundee put down at Killiecrankie.

October. Bill of Rights passed.

Mustafa Kiuprili Grand Vezir.

Locke’s Two Treatises on Government.

1690 July. French victory at Fleurua.

Defeat of Anglo-Dutch fleet off Beachy Head.

Battle of the Boyne. Second flight of James to France. Presbyterianism established in national Church of Scotland.

Turkish reconquest of Servian Widdin, and Belgrade.

Permanent establishment of the English factory at Calcutta.

1691 April. French capture of Mons.

July. Capture of Athlone by William’s forces. Battle of Aughrim. August. Victory of Lewis of Baden at Szalankemen. Death of Mustafe Kiuprili.

October. Treaties of Limerick.

1692 February. Massacre of Glencoe.

May. Anglo-Dutch naval victory of La Hogue.

June. French capture of Namur.

August. William III defeated at Steinkirke. British repulse at St Malo. Invasion of Dauphiné by Victor Amadeus of Savoy.

1693 Defeat of William at Neerwinden.

French victory of Marsaglia and invasion of Piedmont. .

1693-4 Foundation of the National Debt and of the Bank of England

1694 December. Death of Mary, Queen of England.

Foundation of University of Halle.

The Triennial Act passed.

1695 William recaptures Namur.

Accession of tbe Sultan Mustafa II

Press Licensing Act dropped. Freedom of the Press established.

1695-1700 Initiation and ultimate failure of the Darien scheme.

1696 January. The Recoinage Act passed.

February. English “Assassination Plot” discovered.

August. The Duke of Savoy goes over to France.

Death of John Sobieski of Poland.

Conquest of Azoff by Peter the Great.

1697 September. Defeat of the Turks at Zenta by Prince Eugene.

Peace of Ryswyk.

Death of Charles XI of Sweden and accession of Charles XII.

Accession of Augustus II of Poland.

The Muscovite Embassy to the West.

Féneelon’s Explanation of the Maxims of the Saints. Dryden’s Alexander’s Feast.

1698 June. Revolt of the Russian Strieltzy.

October. First Treaty of Partition.

New English East India Company (General Society) incorporated.

1698 British African trade thrown open.

J. Collier’s Short View of the Profaneness and Immorality of the English Stage.

1699 January. Peace of Carlowitz.

February. Death of Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria.

August. Accession of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway.

September. Alliance between Denmark and Poland against Sweden.

November. Russia joins the coalition against Sweden.

Beginning of the great administrative reforms of Peter the Great.

1700 April. Act of Resumption of Irish grants:

May. Second Treaty of Partition.

August. Peace of Traventhal between Sweden and Denmark.

November. Death of Charles II of Spain.

Battle of Narva.

Foundation of Berlin Academy of Sciences.

Defoe’s Two Great Questions Considered.

1701 January. Coronation of Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg as Frederick I, King in Prussia.

February. Dutch Barrier fortresses occupied by French troops.

July. Ontbreak of the War in Italy.

September. The Grand Alliance formed.

Death of James II. Recognition of his son as King by Louis. The Act of Settlement passed.

Brandenburg-Prussia gains the privilegium de non appellando.

Defoe’s True-born Englishman.  

1702 February. Prince Eugene’s raid on Cremona.

March. Death of William III. Accession of Anne.

May. Charles XII in Warsaw.

July. Victory of Charles XII at Klissow. Capture of Cracow.

August. Failure of the English expedition against Cadiz.

September. Marlborough reduces Venloo.

October. Marlborough reduces Ruremonde and Liege. Rooke’s capture of the Plate fleet.

Godolphin and Marlborough’s Tory Ministry formed.

1702-5 Rising in the Cevennes.

1703 April. Victory of Charles XII at Pultusk.

May. Portugal joins the Grand Alliance. Vienna threatened by Villars.

September. French victory at Hochstadt.

December. The Methuen Treaty between England and Portugal.

Act of Security passed by the Scottish Parliament.

1704 January. Deposition of Augustus of Poland.

May-June. Marlborough’s march to the Danube.

July. Stanislaus Leszczynski elected King of Poland.

August. Capture of Gibraltar, and naval battle off Velez Malaga.

Battle of Blenheim.

November. Convention of Ubersheim.

The English Alien Act passed.

1704-5 Resignation of Tory Ministers. Whig additions to the Government.

1705 June. Swedish victory at Gemaurhof.

October. Peterborough’s reduction of Barcelona. Catalonia and Valencia adopt the Habsburg cause.

1706 February. Swedish victory at Fraustadt. Russian retreat.

May. Battle of Ramillies.

August. First negotiations for peace opened by Louis.

September. Eugene’s victory at Turin. French evacuation of Piedmont.

1706  October. Swedish defeat at Kalisch.

Peace of Altranstadt between Sweden and Augustus of Saxony.

1707 March. Convention of Milan. The French abandon northern Italy.

Act of Union between England and Scotland passed.

April. Defeat of the Allies at Almanza.

August. “Perpetual Alliance” between Sweden and Prussia.

Failure of Eugene’s attempt on Toulon.

Prussia acquires Tecklenburg, Neuchatel, and Valengin.

Peter the Great introduces into Russia the “civil script.”

Vauban’s Projet d’une dîme royale. Death of Vauban.

1708 July. Battle of Oudenarde.

Victory of Charles XII at Holowczyn.

September. Swedish rout at Lyesna.

English capture of Minorca.

Permanent union of the two English East India Companies.

1708-9 Oct.-Feb. March of Charles XII through Severia and the Ukraine.

1708-10   Civil war in San Paulo. Portuguese organisation of district.

1709 May. Peace negotiations. The “Preliminaries” rejected by Louis.

Charles XII lays siege to Poltawa.

June. Battle of Poltawa. Revival of the northern league against Sweden.

September. Battle of Malplaquet.

October.Alliance between Russia and Denmark against Sweden.

First Dutch Barrier Treaty

1709-14   Charles XII.-in Turkey.

1710 March. Negotiations at Gertruydenberg.

July. Victory of the Allies at Aimenara.

August. Victory of the Allies at Saragossa.

December. Defeat of the Allies at Brihuega.

Indecisive battle of Villa Viciosa.

Impeachment of Sacheverell and fall of the Whigs. Tory Ministry of Harley and St John formed.

1711 March. War between Russia and Turkey.

April. Death of the Emperor Joseph I.

August. Peace of the Pruth between Russia and Turkey.

October. Election of the Emperor Charles VI.

December. Dismissal of Marlborough.

Plague in Copenhagen.

1712 January. Opening of peace negotiations at Utrecht.

February. Death of the Duke of Burgundy.

March. Death of the Duke of Britanny.

July. Separate armistice between England and France.

French victory at Denain.

December. Swedish victory over the Danes at Gadebusch.

Swift’s Remarks on the Barrier Treaty.

1713 January. Second Dutch Barrier Treaty.

February. Death of Frederick I of Prussia.

April. Peace of Utrecht.

May. Swedish capitulation at Oldensworth.

July. Peace of Adrianople.

Issue of the Bull Unigenitus.

Dumont’s Letter to an Englishman.

1714 March. Peace of Rastatt.

Battle of Storkyro. Russia overruns Finland..

May. The Schism Act.

1714 August. Death of Queen Anne. Accession of George I.

September. Peace of Baden.

1715 February. Peace between Spain and Portugal.

May-June. Third Coalition against Sweden between Great Britain (Hanover), Denmark, and Prussia.

September. Death of Louis XIV.

November. Third Dutch Barrier Treaty.

December. Fall of Stralsund.

1716 Treaty of Danzig between Russia and Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

1716-7 Russian expedition into Central Asia.

1718 December. Death of Charles XII of Sweden.

The viceroyalty of New Granada created.

1719 First Russian envoy in Pekin.

1719-20 Nov.-Feb. Treaties of Stockholm.

1720 July. Peace of Frederiksborg between Sweden and Denmark.

1721 August. Peace of Nystad between Sweden and Russia.

October. Peter the Great declared Emperor.

1722 Russian expansion in the Caspian provinces of Persia.

Ostend Company chartered.

Moravian community founded at Hermhut.

1724 February. Treaty of Stockholm between Russia and Sweden.

June. Treaty of Constantinople between Russia and Turkey.

1725 January. Death of Peter the Great.

February. Accession of Catharine I.

Anglo-Franco-Prussian Treaty of Herrenhausen (Hanoverian Alliance).

1726 August Russia joins Austro-Spanish League.

1727 April. Treaty of Copenhagen between Denmark, England, and France. May. Death of Catharine I. Accession of Peter II.

1729 Treaty of Seville between England, France, and Spain.

1730 January. Death of Peter II and accession of Anne.

1731 Ostend Company suppressed.