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284 Election of Diocletian (17 Sept.).

297 Peace with Persia: acquisition of the five provinces.

303 The Great Persecution (24 Feb.)

305 Abdication of Diocletian (1 May).

306 Elevation of Constantine at York.

309-380 Reign of Sapor II in Persia.

311 Edict of Toleration and death of Galerius.

312 Battle of Saxa Rubra (28 Sept.). Edict of Milan.

314 Council of Arles.

323 Battle of Chrysopolis (Sept.).

325 Council of Nicaea.

  328-373 Athanasius Bishop of Alexandria.

330 (11 May) Inauguration of Constantinople, 'New Rome,' by Constantine the Great.

337 Death of Constantine (22 May). War with Persia.

339 Second Exile of Athanasius.

341 Council of the Dedication at Antioch.

343 Council of Sardica.

346 Return of Athanasius.

350 Revolt of Magnentius.

352 Battle of Mursa.

355 Julian made Caesar for Gaul.

356 Third Exile of Athanasius.

357 Battle of Argentoratum.

359 Councils of Ariminum and Seleucia.

360 Mutiny at Paris: Julian proclaimed Augustus. Council of Constantinople.

361-363 Julian Emperor.

363-364 Jovian Emperor. Peace with Persia: cession of the five provinces.

364 Valentinian and Valens Emperors.

369 Count Theodosius in Britain.

374-397 Ambrose Bishop of Milan.

375-383 Gratian Emperor in the West.

376 Passage of the Danube by the Goths.

378 Battle of Hadrianople (9 Aug.).

379-395 Reign of Theodosius.

381 Council of Constantinople.

383-388 Usurpation of Maximus.

386 Execution of Priscillian.

390 Destruction of the Serapeum.

392 Revolt of Arbogast.

394 Battle of the Frigidus (6 Sept.).

395 Arcadius and Honorius Emperors.

400 Revolt of Gainas.

402 Battle of Pollentia.

406 Passage of the Rhine by the Germans (31 Dec.).

407 Withdrawal of the legions from Britain.

408-450 Reign of Theodosius II in the East.

408 Mutiny at Pavia. Execution of Stilicho.

410 Sack of Rome by Alaric (23 Aug.).

412 The Visigoths in Gaul.

418 Rescript of Honorius to Agricola.

425-455 Valentinian III Emperor in the West.

428-633 Persian rule in Armenia.

429 The Vandals in Africa.

429 Mission of Germanus and Lupus to Britain

430 Death of Augustine.

431 Council of Ephesus.

432-461 St Patrick in Ireland.

438 Codex Theodosianus. Legal separation of East and West.

439 Capture of Carthage by the Vandals.

440-461 Pope Leo I.

445 Edict of Valentinian III.

449 The Latrocinium at Ephesus.

c. 449 Traditional date of Hengest and Horsa.

450-458 Marcian Emperor in the East.

451 Council of Chalcedon. Battle of the Mauriac Plain.

452 Destruction of Aquileia by Attila. Embassy of Pope Leo.

454 Assassination of Aetius.

455 Sack of Rome by the Vandals of Gaiseric.

457-461 Reign of Majorian in the West.

463 Death of St Patrick.

468 Failure of Basiliscus before Carthage.

472 Capture of Rome by Ricimer.

474-491 Zeno Emperor in the East.

476 Deposition of Romulus Augustulus. Odovacar master of Italy till 493.

481 The Henoticon of Zeno. Schism in the Church.

481-511 Reign of Clovis.

486 Clovis defeats Syagrius.

490-583 Cassiodorus.

491-518 Anastasius Emperor.

493-526 Reign of Theodoric in Italy.

493 Traditional date of Cerdic

506 Issue of the Breviarium Alarici

507 Battle of the Campus Vogladensis.(Battle of Vouillé). Clovis conquers Aquitains

511 Division of the Frankish kingdom by the sons of Clovis.

518 Justin Emperor. End of the Schism.

527-565 Reign of Justinian

529 Publication of Justinian's Code. The Schools of Athens closed.

532 The Nika riot. Building of St Sophia begun.

533 Justinian's Digest and Institutes.

533 Conquest of Africa by Belisarius.

534 Frankish conquest of the Burgundians.

535-553 The Gothic War.

537 Inauguration of St Sophia.

537-538 The great siege of Rome by the Goths.

540 Capture of Ravenna by Belisarius.

541 Abolition of the Consulships.

548 Death of Theodora.

552 Battle of Taginae.

553 Battle of the Lactarian Mount. Fifth General Council.

554 Conquest of Southern Spain by the Imperial forces.

558 The Avars appear in Europe. The Huns before Constantinople.

560-616 Reign of Aethelberht in Kent.

561 Division of the Frankish kingdom by the sons of Chlotar I

565 Death of Justinian. Justin II Emperor.

568 The Lombards invade Italy. The Avars enter Pannonia.

570 Birth of Mahomet.

575 Assassination of Sigebert

576-636 Isidore of Seville.

578 Tiberius II Emperor.

582 Maurice Emperor. Creation of the exarchates of Africa and Ravenna.

597 Landing of Augustine. Death of Columba (9 June). Conquest of Africa by Belisarius.

584 Assassination of Chilperic.

589 Conversion of the Visigoths. Third Council of Toledo.

590 Agilulf king of the Lombards.

590-603 Pontificate of Gregory the Great.

591 Chosroes restored by Maurice.

594 Death of Gregory of Tours.

597 Landing of Augustine. Death of Columba (9 June).

602 Phocas Emperor.

604 Death of St Gregory the Great

610 Heraclius Emperor.

613 Reunion of the Frankish kingdom under Chlotar II.

614 Capture of Jerusalem by the Persians.

615 Death of Columban.

622 Flight of Mahomet to Medina.

625-638 Pope Honorius.

626 Siege of Constantinople by Persians and Avars.

627 Baptism of Edwin of Deira. Defeat of the Persians by Heraclius at Nineveh.

628 Peace with Persia.

629 Expulsion of Byzantines from Spain.

631 The Avars defeat the Bulgarians.

632 Death of Mahomet. Abu Bakr Caliph.

633-693 Byzantine rule in Armenia. Battle of Heathfield.

634 Mission of Birinus in Wessex. Omar Caliph.

635 The Bulgarians free themselves from the power of the Chazars.

635-642 Reign of Oswald in Northumbria.

636 Battle of the Yarmak. Issue of the Ekthesis.

637 Battle of Kadisiya.

638 Capture of Jerusalem by the Arabs.

640 Invasion of Egypt by the Arabs.

641 Constantine III Emperor. Battle of Nihawand.

642 Chindaswinth king in Spain. Battle of Maserfield.

642-671 Oswy king in Northumbria.

644 Othman Caliph.

647 Final capture of Alexandria by the Arabs.

648 Issue of the Type.

650 Creation of the Asiatic themes

653 Muawiya reaches Dorylaeum. Arrest of Pope Martin.

655 Battle of the Winwaed.

659 Ali Caliph — Civil war.

661 Mercian Revolt.

663 Muawiya Caliph. Constans in Rome.

664 Synod of Whitby.

668 Constantine IV Emperor.

673 Synod of Hertford. Murder of Husain at Karbala.

679 Establishment of the Bulgarians south of the Danube.

685 Battle of Nechtansmere. Justinian II Emperor.

687 Battle of Tertry.

688 Baptism and death of Ceadwalla.

688-726 Ine king in Wessex.

690 Death of Benedict Biscop.

692 The Trullan Council.

693-862 Arab rule in Armenia.

695 Leontius Emperor.

697 Final capture of Carthage by the Saracens.

698 Tiberius (Apsimar) Emperor.

704 Death of Adamnan.

705 Justinian II restored.

709 Death of Wilfrid. Death of Aldhelm.

711 Philippicus Emperor. Battle of La Janda. Saracen conquest of Spain.

712-744 Liutprand king of the Lombards.

713 Anastasius II Emperor. First Venetian Doge elected.

715-731 Pope Gregory II.

716 Theodosius III Emperor.

716-757 Aethelbald king in Mercia.

717 Battle of Vincy.

717-741 (25 March) Accession of Leo III the Isaurian.

717-718 The Arabs besiege Constantinople.

723 Boniface consecrated a bishop.

725 Beginning of the Iconoclast Controversy.

726 Edict against images.

727 The Italian Revolt. Insurrections in Greece and Italy.

731-741 Pope Gregory III.

731 End of Bede's History.

732 Battle of Tours. Victory of Charles Martel over the Saracens at Poitiers.

734 Bede's Letter to Ecgbert.

735 Death of Bede

739 Embassy of Gregory III to Charles Martel. Battle of Acroinon.

740 Publication of the Ecloga. Death of Leo III the Isaurian, and accession of Constantine V Copronymus.

741 Insurrection of Artavasdus.

742 (2 Nov.) Recovery of Constantinople by Constantine V.

741-752 Pope Zacharias.

741-775 Constantine V Emperor.

743 Boniface archbishop of Mayence.

744 Murder of Walid II. The Caliphate falls into anarchy.

747 Annihilation of the Egyptian fleet.

749 Aistulf king of the Lombards.

750 Fall of the Umayyads. Foundation of the Abbasid Caliphate.

751-768 Pepin king. Taking of Ravenna by the Lombards.

753 Iconoclastic Council of Hieria.

754 Donation of Pepin to the Papacy.

754-756 Frankish Interventions in Italy.

755 Bizantine war with the Bulgarians begins.

755 Death of Boniface.

756 Desiderius king of the Lombards.

756 Abd-ar-Rahman establishes an independent dynasty in Spain.

757-796 Offa king in Mercia.

757 Election of Pope Paul IV. Ratification of Papal elections ceases to be asked of the Emperor of the East.

758 Risings of the Slavs of Thrace and Macedonia.

759 Pepin's conquest of Septimania.

759 Defeat of the Bulgarians at Marcellae.

762 Baghdad founded by the Caliph Mansur. Defeat of the Bulgarians at Anchialus.

764-771 Persecution of the image-worshippers.

766 Death of St Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz.

768-771 Charles and Carloman.

771-814 Charles alone.

772 Defeat of the Bulgarians at Lithosoria.

772-795 Pope Hadrian I.

772-804 Saxon Wars.

774 Annexation of the Lombard kingdom by Charlemagne. Pope Hadrian I gives the Dionysio-Hadriana collection of canons to Charlemagne.

775 (14 Sept.) Death of the Emperor Constantine V and accession of Leo IV the Chazar.

778 Roncevalles.

780 (8 Sept.) Death of Leo IV and Regency of Irene. 780 St Benedict founds the monastery of Aniane.

781 Pope Hadrian I ceases to date official acts by the regnal years of the Emperor.

787 Ecumenical Council of Nicaea. Condemnation of Iconoclasm.

787 Second Council of Nicaea. Submission of Benevento. Deposition of Tassilo. First landing of the Vikings in England.

787-802 Archbishopric of Lichfield.

788 Establishment of the Idrisid dynasty in Morocco.

790 (Dec.) Abdication of Irene. Constantine VI assumes power.

794 Diet of Frankfort.

795 Capture of the Avar Ring.

795-816 Pope Leo III.

796 Death of Offa of Mercia.

797 (17 July) Deposition of Constantine VI. Irene becomes Emperor.

799 Outrage on Pope Leo (25 Mar.).

800 Arrival of Charles at Rome (24 Nov.). The Imperial Coronation (25 Dec.). The invasions of the Northmen begin. Establishment of the Aghlabid dynasty in Tunis.

802-825 The Northmen establish themselves in Ireland.

802-839 Reign of Ecgbert as king of Wessex.

802 (31 Oct.) Deposition of Irene and accession of Nicephorus I.

803 Destruction of the Barmecides.

804 Death of Alcuin.

807-811 Danish Wars.

809 Death of Harun ar-Rashid and civil war in the Caliphate. The Bulgarian Khan Krum invades the Empire. Pepin of Italy's attack upon Venice.

810 Nicephorus I's scheme of financial reorganization. Concentration of the lagoon-townships at Rialto.

811 The Emperor Nicephorus I is defeated and slain by the Bulgarians : accession of Michael I Rangabé.

811 Completion of the Spanish March.

812 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle recognizes Charlemagne's imperial title.

813 Michael I defeated at Versinicia: Krum appears before Constantinople. Deposition of Michael I and accession of Leo V the Armenian. Battle of Mesembria. Mamun becomes sole Caliph.

814 (14 April) Death of Krum: peace between the Empire and the Bulgarians.

815 Iconoclastic synod of Constantinople. Banishment of Theodore of Studion.

814 Death of Charles (28 Jan.).

814-840 Reign of Louis the Pious.

817 Divisio Imperii. Death of St Benedict of Aniane. 7 Council of Aix-la-Chapelle reinforces Rules of St Chrodegang and St Benedict of Aniane.

820 (25 Dec.) Murder of Leo V, and accession of Michael II the Amorian.

822 Insurrection of Thomas the Slavonian.

824 Promulgation of the Constitutio Romana.

825 Conquest of Cornwall by Ecgbert. Collapse of Mercia.

826 St Anskar's first mission to Scandinavia.

826 Death of Theodore of Studion. Conquest of Crete by the Arabs.

827-831 Saracen conquest of Sicily.

829-842 Reign of Theophilus.

831 Saracen conquest of Palermo.

832 Edict of Theophilus against images.

833 Death of the Caliph Mamun.

833 The Field of Lies.

834 The Norsemen attack the Frankish Empire in force.

835 Resumption of Viking raids upon England.

836 The Abbasid capital removed from Baghdad to Samarra.

839 Treaty between the Russians and the Greeks.

840 Treaty of Pavia between the Emperor Lothar I and Venice.

840 Death of Einhard.

840-855 Reign of Lothar I.

840-876 Reign of Louis the German.

840-877 Reign of Charles the Bald.

841 Battle of Fontenoy (25 June).

841-891 Height of the Viking invasions.

842 Oath of Strasbourg (14 Feb.).

842 The Arabs take Messina. Disintegration of the Caliphate begins.

842-867 Reign of Michael III.

843 Sack of St Peter's at Rome by the Saracens. Treaty of Verdun (Aug.). Division of the Frankish Empire.

843 Council of Constantinople, and final restoration of image-worship by the Empress Theodora.

844-860 Kenneth Mac Alpin of Scotland

845-882 Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims.

846 Saracen attack on Rome.

846 Ignatius becomes Patriarch.

847 Pope Leo IV walls the Leonine City. c. Rurik, the Scandinavian, of Russia.

c. 850 The False Decretals forged.

851 The Danes first winter in Thanet.

851 John the Scot's De Praedestinatione.

852-893 Reign of Boris in Bulgaria.

855 Death of the Emperor Lothar I and division of his lands.

855-869 Reign of Lothar II in Lorraine.

855-875 Reign of the Emperor Louis II in Italy.

856 Death of Raban Maur.

856-866 Rule of Bardas.

857 Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople.

858-867 Pope Nicholas I.

858 Deposition of Ignatius and election of Photius as Patriarch.

859-862 Second expedition of the Norsemen to Spain and the Mediterranean.

859 Saracen conquest of Sicily completed.

860 The Russians appear before Constantinople.

860-861 (?) Cyril's mission to the Chazars.

863 (?) Mission of Cyril and Methodius to the Moravians.

864 St Cyril and St Methodius among the Moravians. Conversion of Bulgaria to orthodoxy.

867 Schism of East and West in the affair of Photius. The Synod of Constantinople completes the rupture with Rome. (23 Sept.) Murder of Michael III and accession of Basil I the Macedonian. Deposition of Photius. Restoration of Ignatius.

867 (13 Nov.) Death of Pope Nicholas I. (14 Dec.) Election of Pope Hadrian II.

868 Independence of Egypt under the Talanid dynasty.

868 Death of Ratramn.

869 Death of Lothar II (8 Aug.). Charles the Bald crowned king of Lorraine (6 Oct.). Martyrdom of St Edmund.

869 (14 Feb.) Death of Cyril. Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. End of the Schism.

870 Harold Fairhair founds the kingdom of Norway.

870 Submission of East Anglia to the Northmen. Partition of Lorraine at Meersen (8 Aug.). Methodius becomes the first Moravo-Pannonian archbishop.

871 Battle of Ashdown.

871 Capture of Bari from the Saracens. War with the Paulicians.

871-899 Reign of Alfred the Great.

872-882 Pope John VIII.

874 The Norse begin to settle in Iceland.

875 Death of the Emperor Louis II (12 Aug.). Imperial Coronation of Charles the Bald (25 Dec.).

876 Death of Louis the German (28 Aug.). Colonization of Northumbria by the Danes. Capture of Bari from the Saracens by the Greeks.

877 Settlement of the Five Boroughs. Death of Ignatius and reinstatement of Photius as Patriarch. (22 July) Council of Ravenna. Assembly of Quierzy (14 June). Death of Charles the Bald (6 Oct.).

878 Battle of Edington. Peace between Alfred and Guthrum at Chippenham (the so-called Treaty of Wedmore). (21 May) Capture of Syracuse by the Arabs.

879-887 Boso, king of Provence.

880 Treaty of Ribemont (all Lorraine ceded to Germany). 880 Death of John Scottus (Erigena).

881-887 Charles the Fat as Emperor.

882 Death of Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims (21 Dec.). Murder of Pope John VIII. Triumph of Roman nobles. Fresh rupture between the Eastern and Western Churches; excommunication of Photius.

884 Union of the Frankish kingdoms under the Emperor Charles the Fat.

885 Recapture of London by Alfred, and Alfred and Guthrum's Peace. (6 April) Death of Methodius.

885-887 The Northmen besiege Paris.

886 Deposition and exile of Photius.

886-912 Reign of Leo VI the Wise.

887 Final disruption of the Empire of Charles the Great.

887-899 Arnulf, king of Germany.

887-892 Reign of Ashot I in Armenia.

888-898 Odo, king of France.

888-911 or 912 Rodolph I, king of Jurane Burgundy.

890 The Saracens seize Fraxinetum.

891 King Arnulf defeats the Northmen near Louvain. Death of Photius.

892 The Abbasid capital restored to Baghdad.

892-914 Reign of Smbat I in Armenia.

893-927 Reign of Simeon in Bulgaria.

895-896 The Magyars migrate into Hungary.

896 Arnulf crowned Emperor.

898 Reconciliation between the Eastern and Western Churches

898-923 Reign of Charles the Simple of France..

899 The Magyars invade Lombardy.

899-911 Reign of Louis the Child of Germany.

899-925 Reign of Edward the Elder.

900 The Hungarian ravages begin. Victory of Nicephorus Phocas at Adana. The Magyars occupy Pannonia.

901 Louis (the Blind), now king of Italy, receives the Imperial Crown.

902 (1 Aug.) Fall of Taormina, the last Greek stronghold in Sicily.

904 Thessalonica sacked by the Saracens.

906 Leo VI's fourth marriage: contest with the Patriarch. The Magyars overthrow the Great Moravian State.

907 Russian expedition against Constantinople.

909-1171 The Fatimid Caliphate in Africa.

910 Foundation of Cluny.

911 Foundation of the Duchy of Normandy by the treaty of St-Clair-sur-Epte. Beginning of the reconquest of the Danelaw. Charles the Simple gains Lorraine.

911-918 Conrad I of Germany.

912 (11 May) Death of Leo VI and accession of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus under the regency of Alexander.

912-919 Aethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians.

913 Simeon of Bulgaria appears before Constantinople.

914-929 Pope John X.

915 Saracens driven from the Garigliano.

915-928 Reign of Ashot II in Armenia.

917 (20 Aug.) Bulgarian victory at Anchialus.

919 (25 Mar.) Usurpation of Romanus Lecapenus.

919-938 Henry I (the Fowler), king of Germany.

920 (June) A Council at Constantinople pronounces upon fourth marriages.

922 Revolt of France from the Carolingians.

923 Simeon besieges Constantinople.

925 Lorraine finally united to Germany.

925-939 Reign of Aethelstan.

926-945 Reign of Hugh of Provence in Italy (d. 948).

927-941 Reforming activities of Odo, Abbot of Cluny.

927 (8 Sept.) Peace with Bulgaria.

928-936 St Wenceslas (Vaclav), duke of Bohemia.

929 Death of Charles the Simple. Abd-ar-Rahman III declares himself Caliph in Spain.

931-933 Treaty for the union of Burgundy and Provence.

932-954 Alberic, ruler of Rome.

932 Foundation of the Buwaihid dynasty.

933 Defeat of the Hungarians at Riade (15 Mar.). Venice establishes her supremacy in Istria

935 Death of Gorm the Old, king of Denmark.

935-970 Fernan Gonzalez, count of Castile.

936 Carolingian Restoration (Louis d'Outremer) in France.

936-973 Reign of Otto the Great.

937 Battle of Brunanburh.

939 Rebellion of the German dukes.

939-946 Reign of Edmund of England.

941 Russian expedition against Constantinople.

943 Dunstan made abbot of Glastonbury.

944 (16 Dec.) Deposition of Romanus Lecapenus. Personal rule of Con­stantine VII begins.

945 The Buwaihids enter Baghdad and control the Caliphate.

946-955 Reign of Eadred of England.

947 The Kalbite dynasty of Sicily founded.

950 Berengar II crowned king of Italy.

951-952 First expedition of Otto the Great to Italy.

953-954 Second rebellion of the German dukes.

954 Princess Olga of Russia embraces Christianity.

954 England under one king.

954-994 Maiolus (Mayeul) Abbot of Cluny.

954-986 Reign of Lothair in France.

955 Defeat of the Hungarians in the Lechfeld (10 Aug.).

955-963(4) John XII (Octavian), Pope.

959 (9 Nov.) Death of Constantine VII and accession of Romanus II.

959-975 Reign of Edgar the Peaceable of England.

959-976 Reign of the Doge Peter IV Candianus.

960 Final establishment of Otto's rule in Germany.

960-988 Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury.

961 Recovery of Crete by Nicephorus Phocas. Athanasius founds the convent of St Laura on Mt Athos.

961-964 Otto's second expedition to Italy.

962 Otto the Great, Emperor of the West.

963 (15 Mar.) Death of Romanus II: accession of Basil II: regency of Theophano. (16 Aug.) Usurpation of Nicephorus II Phocas.

963 Deposition of Pope John XII (4 Dec.), and election of Leo VIII, the Emperor's nominee.

964 Novel against the monks.

965 Conquest of Cilicia.

966-972 Otto's third expedition to Italy.

967 Renewal of the Bulgarian war.

968 The Russians in Bulgaria. Adalbert, first archbishop of Magdeburg, appointed.

969 Conquest of Egypt by the Fatimites. (28 Oct.) Capture of Antioch. (10 Dec.) Murder of Nicephorus Phocas and accession of John Tzimisces.

970-1035 Sancho the Great, king of Navarre.

970 Capture of Aleppo. Accession of Geza as Prince of the Magyars.

  971 Revolt of Bardas Phocas. The Emperor John Tzimisces annexes Eastern Bulgaria.

972 Death of Svyatoslav of Kiev.

972 Marriage of Otto II and Theophano. Capture of Frainet (Fraxinetum).

973-983 Otto II, Emperor of the West.

975-978 Reign of Edward the Martyr of England.

976 (10 Jan.) Death of John Tzimisces: personal rule of Basil II Bulgaroctonus begins. Peter Orseolo I elected Doge.

976-979 Revolt of Bardas Sclerus.

977 War of the three Henries.

978-1002 Almanzor, prime minister in Spain.

978-1016 Reign of Aethelred the Unready.

980 Accession of Vladimir in Russia.

980 Renewal of Scandinavian invasions of England.

980-1040 Peace of God.

982 Otto II defeated by the Saracens. Revolt of the Wends from Germany.

983 Otto II nominates a Lombard Pope (John XIV), the first to take a papal name.

983-991 Regency of Theophano.

983-1002 Otto III, Emperor of the West.

985-996(8) Crescentius II, patrician of Rome.

985 Fall of the eunuch Basil.

986-1018 Great Bulgarian War.

987-989 Conspiracy of Phocas and Sclerus.

987-996 Hugh Capet, king of France.

988 The Fatimid Caliphs occupy Syria.

989 Vladimir of Russia becomes Christian. Vladimir captures Cherson.

991 The Fatimids re-occupy Syria.

991-1009 Reign of Peter Orseolo II as Doge of Venice.

992 (19 July) First Venetian treaty with the Eastern Empire.

992-1025 Boleslav Chrobry, duke of Poland.

994 Saif-ad-Daulah takes Aleppo and establishes himself in Northern Syria.

994-1001 War with the Fatimids.

994-1049 Odilo, abbot of Cluny.

995 Basil II's campaign in Syria.

996 (Jan.) Novel against the Powerful. Defeat of the Bulgarians on the Spercheus. Otto III nominates a German Pope (Gregory V).

996-1026 Richard II (the Good) Duke of Normandy.

996-1037 Reign of Robert the Pious of France.

997 Accession of St Stephen in Hungary, and conversion of the Magyars.

998-1030 Reign of Mahmad of Ghaznah.

999 Otto III nominates a French Pope (Sylvester II).

1000 The Hungarians become Christian under St Stephen. Foundation of the archbishopric of Guesen for Poland.

1000-1025 Burchard, bishop of Worms, canonist.

1001 St Stephen crowned king of Hungary. Foundation of the archbishopric of Gran for Hungary.

1002 Death of the Emperor Otto III (23 Jan.). Massacre of St Brice's Day. Saracens defeated at Bari by the Venetians.

1002-1012 John Crescentius (III), patrician of Rome.

1002-1014 Reign of Ardoin of Ivrea, in Italy.

1002-1024 Reign of Henry II, Emperor of the West.

1003 Death of Pope Sylvester II (Gerbert).

1004 Henry II crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia. Richard, abbot of St Vannes.

1006 Vladimir of Russia makes a treaty with the Bulgarians.

1007 Establishment of the see of Bamberg.

  1007-1029 Fulbert, bishop of Chartres.

1009 The Patriarch Sergius erases the Pope's name from the diptychs.

1009 Profanation of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem by Hakimthe Fatimid.

1012 The Order of Camaldoli founded. The Decretum of Burchard of Worms.

1012-1046 The Tusculan Popes.

1012 Murder of Archbishop Alphege (Aelfheah).

1012-1024 Benedict VIII (of Tusculum), Pope.

1012-1044 Counts of Tusculum supreme in Rome.

1013 Triumph of Svein in England.

1014 Death of Svein (Feb.). Imperial coronation of Henry II at Rome. Defeat of the Vikings by Brian Boru.

1014 Battle of Cimbalongu; death of the Tsar Samuel.

1015 Death of Vladimir of Russia.

1016 Arrival of the Normans in South Italy.

1016 Death of Edmund Ironside. Revolt of Melo in Apulia.

1017-1035 Reign of King Knut the Great.

1018 Treaty of Bautzen.

1018-1186 Bulgaria a Byzantine province.

1021-1022 Annexation of Vaspurakan to the Empire.

1024 Death of Pope Benedict VIII. Death of Henry II.

1024 The Patriarch Eustathius attempts to obtain from the Pope the autonomy of the Greek Church.

1024-1039 Reign of Conrad II the Salic.

1025 (15 Dec.) Death of Basil II and accession of Constantine VIII.

1026 Fall of the Orseoli at Venice.

1027-1035 Robert I Duke of Normandy.

1027 Conrad II crowned Emperor at Rome.

1028 (11 Nov.) Death of Constantine VIII and succession of Zoe and Romanus III Argyrus.

1029 The Normans established in the county of Aversa.

1030 Defeat of the Greeks near Aleppo. Ranulf becomes count of Aversa.

1031 Capture of Edessa by George Maniaces. Abolition of the Caliphate in Spain.

1031-1060 Reign of Henry I of France.

1032 Death of Rodolph III of Burgundy. Ferdinand I, first king of Castile.

1033-1034 Acquisition of Burgundy by Conrad II.

1034 (12 April) Murder of Romanus III and accession of Michael IV the Paphlagonian. Government of John the Orphanotrophos.

1034-1037 The sons of Tancred d'Hauteville arrive in South Italy.

1034-1058 Reign of Casimir I of Poland.

1035 Foundation of the State of Aragon by Ramiro I Sanchez.

1035 (2 July) William the Bastard becomes Duke of Normandy.

1035-1076 Raymond-Berengar I of Barcelona.

1036 Death of Avicenna.

1038 The Order of Vallombrosa founded.

1037 Conrad's Constitutio de feudis for Italy.

1037-1055 Bratislav I, duke of Bohemia.

1038 Conrad II declares Roman Law the territorial law of Rome. Death of St Stephen of Hungary. Success of George Maniaces in Sicily. The Seljuq Tughril Beg proclaimed.

1038-1040 Campaigns of Maniakes in Sicily.

1039 Death of Conrad II (4 June), and accession of Henry III as King of Germany, Italy, and Burgundy.

Beginning of the Truce of God.

1041 (10 Dec.) Death of Michael IV and succession of Michael V Calaphates. Banishment of John the Orphanotrophos.

1042 (21 April) Revolution in Constantinople; fall of Michael V. Zoe and Theodora joint Empresses. Accession of Edward the Confessor. (11-12 June) Zoe's marriage ; accession of her husband, Constantine IX Monomachus.

1042 "Truce of God" proclaimed in Normandy.

1042-1048 Wazo, bishop of Liege.

1043 Michael Cerularius becomes Patriarch. Rising of George Maniaces; his defeat and death at Ostrovo. The "Day of Indulgence." William de Hauteville, count of Apulia.

1045 Foundation of the Law School of Constantinople.

1046 Henry III's coronation as Emperor; he reforms the Papacy. Synod of Sutri.

1046 Death of Richard of St Vannes.

1046-1047 Pope Clement II (Suidger of Bamberg). Synod of Sutri. Deposition of Popes Gregory VI and Benedict IX. (25 Dec.) Election of Pope Clement II (Suidger of Bamberg).

1046 Annexation of Armenia (Ani) to the Empire.

1047 Council of Rome (Jan.) declares simonists deposed. William the Bastard's victory at Val-des-Dunes. Revolt of Tornicius.

1048 Appearance of the Seljuqs on the eastern frontier of the Empire.

1049 Death of Odilo, abbot of Cluny. 1049-1109 Hugh Abbot of Cluny. 3 Oct.) Synod of Rheims.

1049-1054 Pope Leo IX (Bruno of Toul).

1049-1061 Humbert Cardinal-bishop of Silva-Candida.

1050 Death of the Empress Zoe.

1053 (23 June) Pope Leo IX defeated by the Normans at Civitate. Death of Earl Godwin.

1054 (20 July) Schism of Eastern and Western Churches.The Patriarch Michael Cerularius breaks with Rome

1054 Battle of Dunsinane.

1055-1057 Victor II Pope.

1055 (11 Jan.) Death of Constantine IX; Theodora sole Empress. The Seljuq Thril Beg enters Baghdad. (31 Aug.) Death of Theodora and proclamation of Michael VI Stratioticus. Death of Henry III and succession of Henry IV. The outbreak of the Pataria at Milan begins.

1057-1058 Stephen IX Pope.

1057-1072 Peter Damian Cardinal-bishop of Ostia.

1057 Revolt of Isaac Comnenus. Deposition of Michael VI. (1 Sept.?) Isaac I Comnenus crowned Emperor at Constantinople.

1058 Deposition and death of Michael Cerularius.

1059 Treaty of Melfi. Abdication of Isaac Comnenus.

1058-1061 Nicholas II Pope.

1059-1067 Reign of Constantine X Ducas.

1059 Submission of the see of Milan to the Papacy. The Papal Election Decree (14 Apr.). The Treaty of Melfi (Aug.). Robert Guiscard recognised as Duke of Apulia. Hildebrand appointed Archdeacon of the Roman Church.

1060-1108 Philip I King of France.

  1061-1073 Pope Alexander II.

1061-1091 Norman conquest of Sicily.

1063 Death of Tughril Beg.

1063-1072 Reign of the Seljuq Alp Arslan.

1064-1069 Promulgation of the Usalgee of Raymond Berengar I, the earliest known feudal code.

1064 Capture of Ani by the Seljuqs, and conquest of Greater Armenia.

1065 End of the minority of Henry IV of Germany (29 Mar.). The Seljuq Turks enter Syria.

1066 (5 Jan.) Death of Edward the Confessor. (6 Jan.) Earl Harold elected King of England. (14 Oct.) Battle of Hastings. William the Conqueror King of England.

1066 Death of Edward the Confessor.

1066 Foundation of the Nizamiyah University at Baghdad.

1067-1071 Reign of Romanus III Diogenes.

1068 Rebellion of Edwin and Morkere. Harrying of the North.

1070-1089 Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury.

1071 Capture of Bari by Robert Guiscard (Apr.). End of the Byzantine power in Italy. The Seljuqs occupy Jerusalem. Battle of Manzikert (26 Aug.). Completion of the Conquest of England by the Normans.

1071-1078 Reign of Michael VII Parapinaces Ducas.

1072-1092 Reign of the Seljuq Malik Shah.

1073 (22 Apr.) Election of Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand). (Aug.) Outbreak of the Saxon revolt.

1074 (18 Jan.) Henry V grants a charter to the citizens of Worms.

1075 Pope Gregory VII enunciates papal powers in the Dictates Papae. The first Investiture decree. (9 June) Henry IV defeats the Saxons on the Unstrut.

1076 (24 Jan.) Council of Worms. Excommunication of Henry IV by Gregory VII.

(16 Oct.) Diet of Trihur. The Order of Grandmont founded by St Stephen.

1077 (Jan.) King Henry IV goes to Canossa.

Diet of Forchheim. Election of Rudolf of Swabia as anti-king (13 Mar.). First English Cluniac monastery founded at Lewes.

1077 Accession of Sulaiman I, Sultan of Rum.

1078 The Turks at Nicaea.

1078-1081 Reign of Nicephorus III Botaniates.

1079 First Norse king of the Isle of Man. The appointment of Frederick, Count of Staufen, as Duke of Swabia founds the fortunes of the Hohenstaufen family.

1080 Alliance between Robert Guiscard and Pope Gregory VII. Foundation of the Armeno-Cilician kingdom.

1081-1118 Reign of Alexius I Comnenus.

  1080 Final excommunication and deposition of Henry IV by the Pope. The Council of Brixeu deposes the Pope and elects Guibert of Ravenna as anti-Pope Clement III (25 June). William the Conqueror refuses to do fealty to Pope Gregory VII. Pope Gregory VII reconciled to Robert Guiscard at Ceprano. Death of the anti-king Rudolf. Robert Guiscard begins attack on the Eastern Empire.

1080-1130 General establishment of communes in the North Italian cities.

1081-1084 Robert Guiscard's invasion of Epirus.

1081-1088 Count Herman of Salm as anti-king.

1082 Treaty with Venice.

1084 Henry IV crowned at Rome by the anti-Pope Clement III. (May) Sack of Rome by the Normans. The Carthusian Order founded by Bruno of Cologne.

1085 (25 May) Death of Pope Gregory VII. (17 July) Death of Robert Guiscard.

1086 Compilation of Domesday Book.Incursions of the Patzinaks begin.

1086-1087 Victor III Pope.

1087 Genoa and Pisa capture Mandiyah in Barbary.

1087-1100 William Rufus King of England.

1088 End of the Saxon revolt. Climax of the power of Henry IV in Germany.

1088-1096 Conquest of South Wales.

1088-1099 Urban II Pope.

1090-1097 Henry IV's expedition to Italy.

1091 Completion of the Norman conquest of Sicily. (29 April) Defeat of the Patzinaks at the river Leburnium.

1093 Revolt of Conrad in Italy.

1093-1109 Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury

1094 Council of Piacenza.

1094-1095 Invasion of the Cumans.

1095 (18-28 Nov.) Council of Clermont proclaims the First Crusade.

1096 The Crusaders at Constantinople.

1095 (Mar.) Council of Piacenza. (27 Nov.) Council of Clermont.

1097 (19 June) Surrender of Nicaea. (1 July) Battle of Dorylaeum.

1098 (21 Mar.) The Cistercian Order founded by Robert of Molesme. (3 June) Fall of Antioch. (28 June) Defeat of Karbagha's army near Antioch, the turning-point in the history of the First Crusade. Council of Bari. St Anselm refutes the Greeks.

1099 (15 July) Capture of Jerusalem. Establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. (22 July) Godfrey of Bouillon chosen Prince of Jerusalem. (12 Aug.) Defeat of the Egyptians near Ascalon; the last achievement of the First Crusade.

1099-1118 Paschal II Pope.

1100 (18 July) Death of Godfrey of Bouillon.

1100-1135 Henry I King of England.

1100-1118 Baldwin I King of Jerusalem.

1100 (Sept.) Death of the anti-Pope Clement III. Coronation Charter of Henry I of England.

1103 Accession of Roger II, Count of Sicily.

1104 Revolt of Henry V against his father the Emperor Henry IV.

1104 Defeat of the Crusaders at Harran.

1106 (7 Aug.) Death of the Emperor Henry IV. End of the schism between the Empire and the Papacy. (28 Sept.) Battle of Tinchebrai. The Order of Fontevrault approved by Pope Paschal II.

1107 (23 May) Council of Troyes. (Aug.) Henry I of England reconciled to Anselm; English Investiture compromise. Bohemond's expedition against Constantinople.

1108 Battle of Durazzo. Treaty with Bohemond.

1108-1137 Reign of Louis VI of France.

1108 Practice of lay-investiture by the King of France lapses.

1110-1111 Henry V's expedition to Italy.

1111 Imprisonment of Pope Paschal II, and his concession of investiture; Henry V crowned Emperor.

1115 Revolt of Saxony. (25 June) Foundation of Clairvaux. (24 July) Death of the Countess Matilda of Tuscany.

1115-1153 St Bernard Abbot of Clairvaux.

1116 Battle of Philomelium.

1118-1119 Gelasius II Pope.

1118 (April) Excommunication of Henry V by Pope Gelasius II, and renewal of the schism between the Empire and the Papacy.

1118-1143 Reign of John II Comnenus.

1118-1131 Baldwin II king of Jerusalem.

1119 First expedition of John Comnenus to Asia Minor.

1119-1124 Calixtus II Pope.

1119 (23 Dec.) Pope Calixtus II confirms the Carta Caritatis of the Cistercian Order.

1120 Foundation of the Orders of Templars and Hospitallers. Foundation of the Premonstratensian Order.

1121 Condemnation of Abelard at Soissons.

1122 (23 Sept.) The Concordat of Worms reconciles the Empire and the Papacy.

122 Defeat of the Patzinaks near Eski-Sagra.

1122-1126 War with Venice.

1123 First Lateran Council.

1124-1130 Honorius II Pope.

1125 (23 May) Death of the Emperor Henry V.

1125 (30 Aug.) Lothar elected to the German kingship as Lothar III. Conversion of the Wends recommenced. (Dec.) Conrad of Hohenstaufen elected anti-king at Spires.

1128 (June) Marriage of the Empress Matilda to Geoffrey Plantagenet. (Aug.) Roger II of Sicily invested with the duchy of Apulia by Pope Honorius II.

1128 The Emperor John Comnenus defeats the Hungarians near Haram.

1130 Disputed election of Innocent II and Anacletus II as Pope. Count Roger II crowned King of Sicily at Palermo (25 Dec.).

1131 The Gilbertine Order founded at Sempringham in Lincolnshire.

1131-1144 Fulk King of Jerusalem.

1133 (4 June) Lothar III crowned as Emperor at Rome by Pope Innocent II.

1135 (Mar.) The Diet of Bamberg ends the conflict between the Emperor Lothar III and the Hohenstaufen.

1137 (May) Roger II of Sicily's fleet defeated off Trani. (4 Dec.) Death of the Emperor Lothar III.

1137-1138 Campaign of John Comnenus in Cilicia and Syria.

1138 (2:5 Jan.) Death of the anti-Pope Anacletus II. (3 Mar.) Conrad III elected King of Germany. (Aug.) Battle of the Standard near Northallertou.

1137-1180 Reign of Louis VII of France.

1139 Second Lateran Council. Innocent II makes the Augustinian Rule compulsory on Canons Regular. Matilda lands in England. Outbreak of civil war. (22 July) Pope Innocent II defeated and captured by the Normans at the battle of the Garigliano.

1140 Condemnation of Ahelard at Sens at the instance of St Bernard.

1141 (2 Feb.) Stephen taken prisoner at the battle of Lincoln. (3 Mar.) The Empress Matilda proclaimed Queen of England. Death of Hugh of St Victor. 1141 Compilation of Gratian's Decretum.

1143-1180 Reign of Manuel I Comnenus. Communal rising at Rome. Foundation of the new city of Lubeck.

1143-1144 Celestine II Pope.

1144 (2.5 Dec.) The Muslims capture Edessa.

1144-1145 Lucius II Pope.

1144-1163 Baldwin III King of Jerusalem.

1145-1153 Eugenius III Pope.

1146 (31 Mar.) St Bernard preaches the Second Crusade at the assembly at Vezelay.

1147-1149 The Second Crusade.

1147-1149 War with Roger II of Sicily.

1147 Wendish massacre at Lübeck. The Wendish Crusade. Disasters to the Crusaders in Asia Minor.

1148 Matilda leaves England. (July) Defeat of the Crusaders before Damascus. Trial of Gilbert de la Porree before the Pope at Rheims. The De Consideratione of St Bernard.

1150 Henry becomes Duke of Normandy.

1151 (13 Jan.) Death of Suger, Abbot of St Denis. The Byzantines at Ancona. (7 Sept ) Death of Geoffrey Plantagenet. Henry of Normandy succeeds to Anjou and Maine.

1152 (15 Feb.) Death of Conrad III. (4 Mar.) Election of Frederick Barbarossa as King of Germany at Frankfort. (May) Marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry of Anjou.

1152-1154 Hungarian War.

1153 (Mar.) Treaty of Constance between Frederick Barbarossa and Pope Eugenius III. Occupation of Bona. Norman dominion in Africa reaches its greatest extent. (Nov.) Treaty of Wallingford between Stephen and Henry of Anjou.

1154 Death of Roger II of Sicily. (2.5 Oct.) Death of Stephen of England.

1154-1155 (Oct.) Frederick Barbarossa's first expedition to Italy.

1154-1159 Hadrian IV Pope.

1154-1166 William I King of Sicily.

1154-1189 Henry 11 King of England.

1155 Execution of Arnold of Brescia. (18 June) Frederick Barbarossa crowned Emperor at Rome by Pope Hadrian IV.

1156 (28 May) The Normans defeat the Byzantines at Brindisi. Treaty of Benevento between the Kingdom of Sicily and the Papacy. (17 Sept.) Diet of Ratisbon establishes the power of Henry the Lion and creates the duchy of Austria.

1157 (Oct.) Diet of Besancon.

1158 Campaign of Manuel Comnenus in Syria. Peace between the Emperor Manuel and William I, King of Sicily. (July) Second expedition of Frederick Barbarossa to Italy. Surrender of Milan. Diet of Roncaglia.

1159 His solemn entry into Antioch ; zenith of his power. Revolt of Milan. (7 Sept.) Disputed election of Alexander Ill and Victor IV as Pope.

1160 (Jan.) Capture of Mandiyah. End of the Norman dominion in Africa. (Feb.) Synod of Pavia. Frederick Barbarossa recognises the anti-Pope Victor IV.

1160-1162 Final subjection of the Wends by Henry the Lion.

1162 (Mar.) Capture and destruction of Milan by Frederick Barbarossa. Becket appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

  1163-1174 Amaury I King of Jerusalem.

1163 Expulsion of the Greeks from Cilicia.

1164 (Jan.) Constitutions of Clarendon. Battle of Harim.(Apr.) Death of the anti-Pope Victor IV. The Order of the Knights of Calatrava approved by Pope Alexander III. 1164 Death of Peter the Lombard.

1165 (23 Nov.) Pope Alexander III enters Rome supported by Norman troops.

1166 Assize of Clarendon. The Carta of Henry II of England.

1166-1168 Frederick Barbarossa's fourth expedition to Italy.

1166-1189 William II King of Sicily.

1167 Beginnings of the Lombard League. Milan rebuilt. (24 July) Frederick Barbarossa begins the siege of Rome. (Aug.) The German army driven from Rome by pestilence.

1168 Annexation of Dalmatia.

1169 Conquest of Egypt for Nar-ad-Din of Damascus.

1170 The Inquest of Sheriffs. (Aug.) Strongbow lands in Ireland. (29 Dec.) Murder of Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.

1170 The Emperor Manuel attempts to re-unite the Greek and Armenian Churches. Rise of the Universities.

1171 Foundation of the Order of the Knights of Santiago. Rupture of Manuel with Venice.

1171-1172 Henry II visits Ireland, and receives general submission.

1173 Frederick Barbarossa besieges Ancona.

  1173-1174 Rebellion in England.

1174-1177 Frederick Barbarossa's fifth expedition to Italy.

1174-1185 Baldwin IV King of Jerusalem.

1174-1193 Reign of Saladin.

1176 Battle of Myriocephalum. (29 May) Defeat of Frederick Barbarossa at Legnano. Treaty of Anagni between the Emperor and the Pope. End of the Papal schism. Assize of Northampton.

1177 (23 July) Treaty of Venice.

1179 (Mar.) Third Lateran Council.

1180 (13 Apr.) Diet of Gelnhausen. Partition of the Duchy of Saxony. (24 June) Diet of Ratisbou. Partition of the Duchy of Bavaria. Death of John of Salisbury.

1180-1183 Reign of Alexius II Comnenus.

1180 Foundation of the Serbian monarchy by Stephen Nemanja.

1181 Submission and exile of Henry the Lion.

1181-1185 Lucius III Pope.

1182 Massacre of Latins in Constantinople.

1183 (June) The Peace of Constance. (Sept.) Andronicus I Comnenus becomes joint Emperor. (Nov.) Murder of Alexius II.

1184 Diet of Mayence. (Sept.) Frederick Barbarossa's sixth journey to Italy.

1185 The Normans take Thessalonica. Deposition and death of Andronicus ; accession of Isaac II Angelus. Failure of William II of Sicily's invasion of the Eastern Empire.

1185-1187 Urban III Pope.

1185-1186 Baldwin V King of Jerusalem.

1185-1219 Reign of Leo II the Great of Cilicia.

1186 (27 Jan.) Marriage of Henry VI of Germany to Constance of Sicily. 6 Second Bulgarian Empire founded.

1187 (4 July) Defeat of the Christians in Syria at klittin. (3 Oct.) Jerusalem taken by Saladin. (Oct.-Dec.) Gregory VIII Pope.

1187-1191 Clement Ill Pope.

1188 The Saladin Tithe.

1189 The Third Crusade. (3 Apr.) Peace of Strasbourg between Pope and Emperor. (May) Frederick Barbarossa goes on the Crusade. (6 July) Death of Henry II of England. (18 Nov.) Death of William 11 of Sicily. Sack of Thessalonica.

1189-1192 Third Crusade.

1190 Death of Frederick Barbarossa in the East. Isaac Angelus defeated by the Bulgarians. (Jan.) Tancred of Lecce crowned King of Sicily. (10 June) Death of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Foundation of the Teutonic Order.

1191 (15 Apr.) Imperial coronation of Henry VI. Third Crusade. Occupation of Cyprus by Richard Coeur-de-Lion. The Crusaders recover Acre (12 July). (7 Sept.) Richard Coeur-de-Lion defeats Saladin at Ars0f.

1191-1198 Celestine III Pope.

1192 Guy de Lusignan purchases Cyprus from Richard I.

1192 (June) Concordat of Gravina. Truce with Saladin.

1193 (14 Feb.) Richard Coeur-de-Lion surrendered to the Emperor by Duke Leopold of Austria. (Feb.) Death of Saladin. The Knights of St John initiate the movement for a new Crusade.

1193-1205 Reign of the Doge Enrico Dandolo.

1194 (3 Feb.) Release of Richard Coeur-de-Lion. (20 Feb.) Death of Tancred, King of Sicily. (Mar.) Reconciliation between the Emperor Henry VI and the Welfs at Tilleda. (26 Dec.) Henry VI crowned King of Sicily. End of the Norman dominion.

1195 Deposition of Isaac II; accession of Alexius III Angelus. (6 Aug.) Death of Henry the Lion.

1196 (Apr.) Diet of Wünthurg. Henry VI attempts to make the German kingship hereditary. (Dec.) His son Frederick chosen king at Frankfort.

1197 (28 Sept.) Death of the Emperor Henry VI.

1197-1207 The Bulgarian Tsar Johannitsa (Kalojan).

1198 (12 Dec.) Death of Averroes.

1201 (April) Fourth Crusade. The Crusaders' treaty with Venice. (May) Boniface of Montferrat elected leader of the Crusade.

1203 (17 July) The Crusaders enter Constantinople. Deposition of Alexius III; restoration of Isaac II with Alexius IV Angelus.

1203-1227 Empire of Genghis Khan.

1204 (8 Feb.) Deposition of Isaac II and Alexius IV; accession of Alexius V Ducas (Mourtzouphlos). (13 April) Sack of Constantinople. (16 May) Coronation of Baldwin, Count of Flanders, and foundation of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. The compulsory union of the Eastern and Western Churches. The Venetians purchase the island of Crete. Alexius Comnenus founds the state of Trebizond.

  1205 (14 April) The Bulgarians defeat the Emperor Baldwin I at Hadrianople.

1206 (21 Aug.) Henry of Flanders crowned Latin Emperor of Constantinople. Theodore I Lascaris crowned Emperor of Nicaea.

1208 Peace with the Bulgarians.

1210 Latin translations from Aristotle's Metaphysics in the West. The study of certain books of Aristotle forbidden to the University of Paris. The Turks of Rum defeated on the Maeander by Theodore Lascaris.

1212 Peace with Nicaea.

1215 The Fourth Lateran Council.

1216 Death of the Emperor Henry, and succession of Peter of Courtenay.

1217 Stephen crowned King of Serbia.

1218 Death of Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaia.

1219 Creation of a separate Serbian Church. The Fifth Crusade. (5 Nov.) The Crusaders capture Damietta. St Francis of Assisi in Egypt.

1221 Restoration of Damietta to the Saracens.

1221-1228 Reign of Robert of Courtenay, Latin Emperor of Constantinople.

1222 Recovery of Thessalonica by the Greeks of Epirus. Death of Theodore Lascaris, Emperor of Nicaea. Accession of John III Vatatzes. First appearance of the Mongols in Europe.

1224 The Emperor of Nicaea occupies Hadrianople.

1226 The Teutonic Order undertakes the conquest of the heathen Prussians.

1228 Death of Stephen, the first King of Serbia. Frederick II recovers Jerusalem.

1228-1237 Reign of John of Brienne, Latin Emperor of Constantinople.

1230 Destruction of the Greek Empire of Thessalonica by the Bulgarians.

1234 Fall of the Kin Dynasty in China.

1235 Revival of the Bulgarian Patriarchate.

1236 Constantinople attacked by the Greeks and Bulgarians. Alliance between the Armenians and the Mongols.

1237 Invasion of Europe by the Mongols.

1237-1261 Reign of Baldwin II, last Latin Emperor of Constantinople.

1241 Battles of Liegnitz and Mohi. Death of John Asén II; the decline of Bulgaria begins.

1244 (23 Aug.) The Ellwarazmian Turks capture Jerusalem. (17 Oct.) Defeat of the Franks at Gaza. The Despotat of Thessalonica becomes a vassal of Nicaea.

1245 Council of Lyons.

1246 Reconquest of Macedonia from the Bulgarians.

1248-54 St Louis' First Crusade.

1252 William of Rubruquis sent on a mission to the Great Khan.

1253 Pope Innocent IV forms the first Missionary Society since the conversion of the West.

1254 Alfonso of Castile issues the Fuero Real. (30 Oct.) Death of John Vatatzes; Theodore II Lascaris succeeds as Emperor of Nicaea. Submission of the Despot of Epirus to Nicaea. Mamluk Sultans in Egypt.

1255-1256 Theodore II's Bulgarian campaigns.

1256 Overthrow of the Assassins by the Mongols.

1256-1265 Compilation of the Partidas.

1258 Death of Theodore II Lascaris. Accession of John IV Lascaris. Destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols and overthrow of the Caliphate.

1259 (1 Jan.) Michael VIII Palaeologus proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea.

1259-1294 Reign of Kublai Khan.

1260 The Egyptians defeat the Mongols at Ain Jou.

1261 (25 July) Capture of Constantinople by the Greeks; end of the Latin Empire.

1261-1530 Abbasid Caliphate in Cairo.

1266 (Feb.) Charles of Anjou's victory over Manfred at Benevento.

1267 (27 May) Treaty of Viterbo. Progress of Charles of Anjou in Epirus.

1268 Capture of Jaffa and Antioch by the Mamluk Sultan Baibars.

1270 St Louis IX of France starts on his Second Crusade. (25 Aug.) Death of St Louis.

1273-1314 Missionary activity of Raymond Lull.

1274 Ecumenical Council at Lyons; union of the Churches again achieved. (7 Mar.) Death of St Thomas Aquinas.

1276 Leo III of Cilicia defeats the Mamluks.

1277 Siger of Brabant condemned by the Inquisition of France.

1278 Leo III of Cilicia defeats the Seljaqs of Iconium.

1280 Death of Albert of Cologne (Albertus Magnus).

1281 Joint Mongol and Armenian forces defeated by the Mamluks on the Orontes. (18 Nov.) Excommunication of Michael Palaeologus; breach of the Union. Victory of the Berat over the Angevins.

1282 (30 May) The Sicilian Vespers. (11 Dec.) Death of Michael Palaeologus. Accession of Andronicus II. c. 1290 Foundation of Wallachia.

1286 Death of William of Moerbeke, the translator from the Greek.

1289 Capture of Tripolis by the Mamluk Sultan Qald'an.

1291 (18 May) Storm of Acre by the Mamluks. End of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1294 Death of Roger Bacon.

1298 Boniface VIII's Decretals (the Sext).

1299 Osman, Emir of the Ottoman Turks.

1302 Osman's victory at Baphaeum. End of the alliance between the Armenians and the Mongols.

1302-1311 The Catalan Grand Company in the East.

1308 Turks enter Europe. Capture of Ephesus by the Turks.

1308 Death of Duns Scotus.

1309 Capture of Rhodes from the Turks by the Knights of St John. 1311 Battle of the Cephisus.

1326 Brasa surrenders to the Ottoman Turks. (Nov.) Death of Osman.

1326-1359 Reign of Orkhan.

1328-1341 Reign of Andronicus III Palaeologus.

1329 The Ottomans capture Nicaea.

1330 (28 June) Defeat of the Bulgarians by the Serbians at the battle of Velbuhl.

1331 (8 Sept.) Coronation of Stephen Dugan as King of Serbia.

1335 Pope Benedict XII issues new constitutions for White monks (Cistercians).

1336 Birth of Timur.

1336 New constitutions issued for Black monks (Benedictines and Cluniacs).

1337 The Ottomans capture Nicomedia. Conquest of Cilicia by the Mamluks.

1341 Succession of John V Palaeologus. Rebellion of John Cantacuzene. 1342-1344 Guy of Lusignan King of Cilicia. 1342-1349 Revolution of the Zealots at Thessalonica.

1344-1363 Reign of Constantine IV in Cilicia. 1345 Stephen Dugan conquers Macedonia.

1346 Stephen Dugan crowned Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks.

1347 John VI Cantacuzene takes Constantinople.

1348 Foundation of the Despotat of Mistra.

1349 Independence of Moldavia.

1350 Serbo-Greek treaty.

1354 The Turks take Gallipoli.

1355 Abdication of John VI Cantacuzene. Restoration of John V. (20 Dec.) Death of Stephen Dusan.

1356 The Turks begin to settle in Europe.

1357 The Turks capture Hadrianople.

1359-1389 Reign of Murad I.

1360 Formation of the Janissaries from tribute-children.

1363-1373 Reign of Constantine V in Cilicia.

1365 The Turks establish their capital at Hadrianople.

1368 Foundation of the Ming dynasty in China.

1369 (21 Oct.) John V abjures the schism.

1371 (26 Sept.) Battle of the Maritza. Death of Stephen Uros V.

1373 The Emperor John V becomes the vassal of the Sultan Mural.

1373-1393 Leo VI of Lusignan, the last King of Armenia.

1375 Capture and exile of Leo VI of Armenia.

1376-1379 Rebellion of Andronicus IV. Coronation of Tvrtko as King of the Serbs and Bosnia.

1379 Restoration of John V.

1382 Death of Louis the Great of Hungary.

1387 Turkish defeat on the Toplica. Surrender of Thessalonica to the Turks.

1389 (15 June) Battle of Kossovo; fall of the Serbian Empire.

1389-1403 Reign of Bayazid.

1390 Usurpation of John VII Palaeologus.

1391 Death of John V. Accession of Manuel II Palaeologus. (23 Mar.) Death of Tvrtko I. Capture of Philadelphia by the Turks. 1393 Turkish conquest of Thessaly. (17 July) Capture of Trnovo ; end of the Bulgarian Empire.

1394 (10 Oct.) Turkish victory at Rovine in Wallachia.

1395 The Congregation (reformed Canons) of Windesheim founded in Germany.

1396 (25 Sept.) Battle of Nicopolis.

1397 Bayazid attacks Constantinople.

1398 The Turks invade Bosnia. Timur invades India and sacks Delhi.

1401 Timur sacks Baghdad.

1402 (28 July) Timur defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayazid at Angora.

  1402-1413 Civil war among the Ottoman Turks.

1403 (21 Nov.) Second battle of Kossovo.

1405 Death of Timur.

1409 Council of Pisa.

1413-1421 Reign of Mahomet I.

1413 (10 July) Turkish victory at Chamorla.

1416 The Turks declare war on Venice. (29 May) Turkish fleet defeated off Gallipoli.

1418 Death of Mircea the Great of Wallachia.

1421 The reformed Benedictine congregation of Santa Giustina founded in Italy.

1421-1451 Reign of Murad II.

1422 Siege of Constantinople by the Turks.

1423 Turkish expedition into the Morea. Thessalonica purchased by Venice.

1423-1448 Reign of John VIII Palaeologus.

1426 Battle of Choirokoitia.

1430 Capture of Thessalonica by the Turks.

1431 Council of Basle opens.

1432 Death of the last Frankish Prince of Achaia.

1438 (9 April) Opening of the Council of Ferrara.

1439 (10 Jan.) The Council of Ferrara removed to Florence.

(6 July) The Union of Florence. Completion of the Turkish conquest of Serbia.

1440 The Turks besiege Belgrade.

1441 John Hunyadi appointed voivode of Transylvania.

1443-1468 Skanderbeg's war of independence against the Turks.

1444 (July) Peace of Szegedin. (10 Nov.) Battle of Varna.

1446 Turkish invasion of the Morea.

1448 (17 Oct.) Third battle of Kossovo. Accession of Constantine XI Palaeologus.

1451 Accession of Mahomet II.

1453 (29 May) Capture of Constantinople by the Turks.

1456 The Turks again besiege Belgrade.

1457 Stephen the Great succeeds in Moldavia.

1458 The Turks capture Athens.

1459 Final end of medieval Serbia.

1461 Turkish conquest of Trebizond.

1462-1479 War between Venice and the Turks.

1463 Turkish conquest of Bosnia.

1468 Turkish conquest of Albania.

1475 Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeats the Turks at Racova

1479 Venice cedes Scutari to the Turks.

1484 The Montenegrin capital transferred to Cetinje

1489 Venice acquires Cyprus

1495 Erection of the Reichskammergericht and final Reception of Roman Law in Germany.

1499 Renewal of Turco-Venetian War

1517Conquest of Egypt by the Turks.

1523 Conquest of Rhodes by the Turks.

1537-1540 Third Turco-Venetian War.