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1. Early Aegean Civilisation (3rd millennium B.C.) 2. Later Aegean Civilisation (and millennium B.C.) 3. Inferences from the Relics of Aegean Civilisation 4.  The Greek Conquest 5.   Expansion of the Greeks to the Eastern Aegean 6.  The Later Wave of Greek Invasion 7. Homer   8.  Political and Social Organisation  9. Fall of Greek Monarchies and Rise of the Republics 1o. Phoenician Intercourse with Greece 1. Greek Reconstruction of Early Greek History


1. Causes and Character of Greek Colonisation . 2. Colonies on the Coasts of the Euxine, Propontis, and North Aegean 3. Colonies in the Western Mediterranean 4. Growth of Trade and Maritime Enterprise 5. Influence of Lydia on Greece 6. The Opening of Egypt  7. Cyrene     


1. Sparta and her Constitution    2. Spartan Conquest of Messenia  3. Internal Development of Sparta and her Institutions  4 The Cretan Constitutions 5. The Supremacy and Decline of Argos. The Olympian Games  6. Democratic Movements. Lawgivers and Tyrants 7. The Tyrannies of Central Greece     8. The Sacred War. The PanheHenic Games                                           


1. The Union of Attica 2. Foundation of the Athenian Commonwealth   3. The Aristocracy in the Seventh Century  4. The Legislation of Solon and the Foundation of Democracy


1. The Conquest of Salamis and Nisaea 2. Athens under Pisistratus 3. Growth of Sparta, and the Peloponnesian league 4. Fall of the Pisistratids and Intervention of Sparta 3. King Cleomenes and the Second Spartan Intervention 6. Reform of Cleisthenes 7. First Victories of the Democracy


1. The Rise of Persia and the Fall of the Lydian Kingdom  2.  The Persian Conquest of Asiatic Greece 3. The Persian Conquest of Egypt. Polycrates of Samos 4. Ionia under Darius 5. The European Expedition of Darius : Conquest of Thrace 6. The Ionic Revolt against Persia 7. Second and Third European Expeditions of Darius. Battle of Marathon 8. Struggle of Athens and Aegina 9. Growth of the Athenian Democracy 10. Athens to be a Sea-power


1.  The Preparations and March of Xerxes 2. Preparations of Greece   3. Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium 4. Battle of Salamis . 5. Consequences of Salamis  6.   Preparations for another Campaign 7.Battle of Plataea 8. Battle of Mycale and Capture of Sestos 9.  Gelon Tyrant of Syracuse 1o. The Carthaginian Invasion of Sicily, and the Battle of Himera 11. Syracuse and Acragas under Hieron and Theron 12. Religious Movements in the Sixth Century 13. Spread of the Orphic Religion   14.Ionian Reason 


1. The Position of Sparta and Career of Pausanias   2. The Confederacy of Delos 3. The Fortification of Athens and the Piraeus . 4. Ostracism and Death of Themistocles 5. The Confederacy of Delos becomes an Athenian Empire 6. Policy and Ostracism of Cimon


1. Completion of the Athenian Democracy 2. War of Athenians with the Peloponnesians 3. Conclusion of Peace with Persia    4. Athenian Reverses. The Thirty Years Peace   5. The Imperialism of Pericles 6. The Restoration of the Temples 7. The Piraeus. Growth of Athenian Trade 8. Athenian Enterprise in Italy 9. Athenian Policy in Thrace and the Euxine 10. Revolt of Samos 11. Higher Education. The Sophists


1. The Prelude of the War 2. General View of the War 3.   The Theban Attack on Plataea       4. The Plague 5. The Siege and Capture of Plataea 6. Revolt of Mytilene 7. Warfare in Western Greece 8. Campaigns of Demosthenes in the West   9. Nicias and Cleon. Politics at Athens 10. The Athenian Capture of Pylos  11. Athenian Capture of Nisaea 12. Athens fails in Boeotia 13. The War in Thrace 14. Negotiations for Peace  15. Battle of Amphipolis.   


1. New Political Combinations with Argos 2. The Western Policy of Athens 3. The Sailing of the Sicilian Expedition 4. Siege of Syracuse 5. The Second Expedition 6. Consequences of the Sicilian Catastrophe  7. The Oligarchic Revolution 8. Fall of the Four Hundred.  The Polity. The Democracy Restored  9. Downfall of the Athenian Empire 10. Rule of the Thirty and Restoration of the Democracy .


1. The Spartan Supremacy 2. The Rebellion of Cyrus, and the March of the Ten Thousand 3. War of Sparta with Persia 4. Asiatic Campaigns of Agesilaus. Battle of Cnidus 5. Sparta at the Gates of the Peloponnesus (the Corinthian War) 6. The King's Peace


1. High-handed Policy of Sparta 2. Alliance of Athens and Thebes 3. The Second Athenian League and the Theban Reforms   4. The Battle of Naxos and the Peace of Callias 5. Athens under the Restored Democracy


1. Jason of Pherae ; and the Battle of Leuctra 2. Policy of Thebes in Southern Greece, Arcadia and Messenia 3. Policy and Action of Thebes in Northern Greece 4. The Battle of Mantinea 5.  The Last Expedition of Agesilaus 


1. Carthaginian Destruction of Selinus and Himera 2. Carthaginian Conquest of Acragas  3. Rise of Dionysius 4. First Years of Dionysius 5. First Punic War of Dionysius 6. Second Punic War, and Sicel Conquests of Dionysius 7. The Empire of Dionysius 8. Death of Dionysius. Estimate of his Work 9. Dionysius the Younger 10. Dion . 11.Timoleon 12. Events in Great Greece


1. Athens regains the Chersonese and Euboea  2. Philip II. of Macedonia 3. Mausolus of Caria 4. Phocis and the Sacred War 5. The Advance of Macedonia 6. Peace of Philocrates 7. Interval of Peace and Preparations for War (346-1 B.C.)  8. Battle of Chaeronea 9. The Synedrion of the Greeks. Philip's Death


1. Alexander's First Descent on Greece 2. Alexander's Campaigns in Thrace and Illyria 3. Alexander's Second Descent on Greece 4. Preparations for Alexander's Persian Expedition  5. Conquest of Asia Minor 6 Battle of Issus 7. Conquest of Syria 8. Conquest of Egypt 9. Battle of Gaugamela (Arbela). and Conquest of Babylonia  10. Conquest of Susiana and Persis 11. Death of Darius 12. Spirit of Alexander s Policy as Lord of Asia


1. Hyrcania, Areia, Bactria. 2. The Conquest of India 3. Alexander's Return to Babylon 4. Preparations for Arabian Expedition, and the Death of Alexander   5. Greece under Macedonia 6. The Episode of Harpalus and the Greek Revolt  7. Aristotle and Alexander




B.C. 3000 (or 3500) Early period of Aegean civilisation: stone and copper age.

2778—2565 (?) 12th dynasty in Egypt.

2500—2000 Conjectural limits of Second City of Troy.

2000—1000 Later period of Aegean civilisation: bronze age (“Mycenaean” in wider sense).

2000—1700 “Proto-Mycenaean” civilisation of Thera.

2000—1500 Conjectural limits of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Cities of Troy.

1700—100“ Mycenaean ” period, in stricter sense.

1600—1100 Limits of Sixth (Homeric) City of Troy.

c. 1503—1449 Reign of king Thothmes III of Egypt.

c. 1400 Reign of Amenhotep III.

1320 Ramses I

13th cent. Reign of Ramses II (Sesostris).

c. 1200 Reign of Mernptah.

Victory of Mernptah over Libyans and their northern allies (in his fifth year).

12th cent. Ramses III

1500—1100 Bloom of Mycenae. Naval power of Crete.

c. 1400 Mycenaean colonisation of Ialysus in Rhodes.

1300—1000 Achaean colonisation. Fall of Troy. Beginnings of Ionian colonisation. Thessalian conquest. Boeotian conquest. Dorian conquest of Crete and islands. Dorian conquest of Eastern Peloponnesus. Colonisation of Cyprus. Beginnings of Epic poetry’. The Achaean (Aeolic) “Homer” composes an Achilleid.

1000—900 Continuation of Ionian colonisation. Dorian colonisation of Asia Minor. Invention of the Greek Alphabet.

1000—700 Carians possess a sea-power. Aegean trade partly in hands of Phoenicians.

1000—900 Beginning of the supremacy of Tyre in Phoenicia.

900—80 “Homer” of Chios composes the Iliad. Beginnings of the city-state. Dorian conquest of Aegina.

8oo—70 Rise of aristocracies throughout Greece. Beginnings of greek colonisation

776 Traditional date of First Olympiad.

735 foundation of Naxos (Sicily).

734 Corcyra.

734 Syracuse.

728 Catane and Leontini.

728 Megara (Hyblaean).

721 Sybaris.

715 Zancle.

707 Taras.

703 Croton

688 Gela.

648 Himera.

709 King Sargon of Assyria sets up stele in Cyprus.

c. 700 Hesiod.

Midas king of Phrygia. Deioces founds Median monarchy. Athenian conquest of Elcusis.

700—655 Conjectural limits of reign of Gyges king of Lydia

683—2 List of annual archons at Athens begins

681—68 Reign of Assarhaddon king of Assyria

679 Assarhaddon defeats the Cimmerians under their leader Teuspa

c. 672 Assyrian conquest of Egypt

668—26 Reign of Assurbanipal king of Assyria

668 Traditional date of battle of Hysiae, in which Argos defeats Sparta

664 Traditional date of ancient sea-battle of Corinth with Corcyra.

664 Fortress of Defenneh (Daphnae) in Egypt built by Psammetichus I

660—20 Conjectural limits of date of Pheidon king of Argos.

650—600 Age of law-givers in Greece

Rise of tyrannies in Ionia. Foundation of tyrannies in Sicyon, Corinth, and Megara.

Ardys and Sadyattes reign in Lydia. Ardys drives out the Cimmerians.

The league of Calauria.

c. 650—25 Reign of Phraortes king of Media.

648 April 6 : Eclipse of the sun mentioned by Archilochus.

645 Egypt throws off yoke of Assyria.

632 Cylon attempts to seize tyranny at Athens.

635 Foundation of Naucratis.

630 Foundation of Cyrene.

630—600 Approximate limits of Spartan conquest of Messenia.

625 Nabopolassar founds new Babylonian kingdom.

c. 621 Legislation of Dracon at Athens.

c. 610 Thrasybulus tyrant of Miletus.

606 Nabopolassar of Babylonia and Cyaxares of Media conquer and divide Assyria.

605 Nebucadnezar succeeds Nabopolassar.

c. 600 War of Athens and Mytilene on the coast of the Hellespont.

Sappho, Alcaeus, Pittacus, flourish at Mytilene. Periander tyrant of Corinth

594—89 Nubian expedition of Psammetichus II. Inscription of Greek mercenaries at Abu Simbel.

594—3 Archonship of Solon. Seisachtheia. (?)

593—591 Continuation of Solon’s legislation

590—589. Sacred War against Crisa.

Cleisthenes of Sicyon flourishes.

585 May 28 : Eclipse of sun. Drawn battle of Cyaxares king of Media with Alyattes king of Lydia

Thales flourishes.

583—1 Archonship of Damasias at Athens.

582 First Pythiad.

572 Elaeans win control of the Olympian games

c. 570 Athenian conquest of Salamis.

569 Accession of Amasis to throne of Egypt.

C. 568 The Telegony of Eugammon of Cyrene.

562 Death of Nebucadnezar.

560 Croesus succeeds to throne of Lydia.

c. 560- 50 War of Sparta with Tegea.

561—60 Archonship of Corneas. Pisistratus seizes tyranny.

c. 559—6 Miltiades becomes tyrant in Thracian Chersonese.

556—5 First exile of Pisistratus.

550—49 ? Restoration of Pisistratus ; and his second exile.

550 Spartan conquest of Thyreatis.

548—7 Temple of Apollo at Delphi burnt down.

546 Cyrus king of Persia conquers Lydia, and captures Sardis.

546—5 Persian conquest of Asiatic Greeks.

540—39 Second restoration of Pisistratus.

538 Cyrus takes Babylon.

528—7 Death of Pisistratus.

526 Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, abandons alliance with Amasis and joins Persia.

525 Death of Amasis king of Egypt.

Persian conquest of Egypt : battle of Pelusion.

525 Spartans attack Samos.

523 Death of Polycrates.

522 Death of Cambyses king of Persia.

521 Accession of Darius.

520 First capture of Babylon by Darius.

519 Second capture of Babylon by Darius.

514 Conspiracy of Harmodius and Aristogiton.

512 First European expedition of Darius : conquest of Thrace.

510 Fall of the Pisistratid tyranny. Spartans in Attica. Athens joins Peloponnesian league.

War of Sybaris and Croton.

508—7Archonship of Isagoras. Spartans under Cleomenes invade Attica ; besieged in the Acropolis. Beginning of reforms of Cleisthenes.

506 Peloponnesian army invades Attica.

Athenians defeat (1) Boeotians, (2) Chalcidians : acquire Chalcidian plain.

506 Athens acquires Oropus (land of the Graeans).

503—2 First civil year on the Cleisthenic system.

501 Institution of the Ten strategoi of the tribes at Athens.

499 Outbreak of Ionic revolt.

498 Athens at war with Aegina.

497 Ionians and allies at Sardis : burning of Sardis.

496 (?) Revolt of Thrace; Scythians drive Miltiades from Chersonese.

494 Battle of Lade; Persians capture Miletus.

c. 494 Battle of Sepeia (Spartans under Cleomenes defeat Argives).

493—2 Archonship of Themistocles.

c. 492 Athens coerces Aegina. Battle of the Helorus.

492 Mardonius subdues Thrace and Macedonia.

c. 491 Gelon becomes tyrant of Gela.

490 Expedition of the Persians under Datis of Greece. Destruction of Eretria. Battle of Marathon.

489 Expedition of Miltiades to Paros.

c. 489 Death of Cleomenes.

488 Victory of Gelon in chariot-race at Olympia.

487 Ostracism of Hipparchus the Pisistratid.

War of Athens with Aegina.

487—6 Archons begin to be appointed by lot. Strategoi supersede the Polemarch.

486 Ostracism of Megacles. Pindar’s 7th Pythian.

486—5 Egypt revolts against Persia.

485 Death of Darius. Accession of Xerxes.

484 Ostracism of Xanthippus son of Arriphron.

484—3 Persia recovers control of Egypt.

483 Persians hew canal through Mount Athos.

483—2 Discovery of a new vein of silver in mine-fields of Laurion.

482 Ostracism of Aristides.

Increase of Athenian fleet. Pythian victory of Hieron in horse-race.

481 Xerxes comes down to Sardis.

480 Spring : Athens recalls ostracized citizens.

August : Xerxes enters Greece. Battles of Artemisium and Thermopylae.

September : Battle of Salamis.

October 2 : Eclipse of the sun.

Olynthus given to the Chalcidians.

Carthaginians invade Sicily. Battle of Himera.

479 Mardonius in Attica. August : Battle of Plataea; and battle of Mycale. Ionians revolt from Persia.

478 Athenians capture Sestos. Foundation of Confederacy of Delos.

Death of Gelon : his brother Hieron succeeds to his power. Pythian victory of Hieron in horse-race, yd Pythian Ode of Pindar.

478—6 Fortification of Athens.

477—6 Pausanias at Byzantium; driven out by Cimon

476 Lacedaemonian expedition to Thessaly (?). Victory of Hieron in horse-race at Olympia (1st Olymp. Ode of Pindar ; 5th Ode of Bacchylides).

476—5 Cimon captures Eion.

474 Battle of Cyme.

473—2Cimon conquers Scyrus. Battle of Tegea.

472 Olympian victories of Hieron in horse-race and Theron in chariot-race. 2nd and yd Olympians of Pindar. The Persae of Aeschylus.

472—1 Athenians reduce Carystus. Ostracism of Themistocles. Death of Theron of Acragas. Synoecisms of Elis and Mantinea.

471 Flight of Themistocles. Battle of Dipaea.

471—470 War of Hieron with Thrasydaeus of Acragas.

470 Pythian victory of Hieron in chariot-race. Pindar’s 1st Pythian. 4th Ode of Bacchylides.

470—69 Revolt and reduction of Naxos.

468 Olympian victory of Hieron in chariot-race. 3rd Ode of Bacchylides. Olympian victory of a boy of Tiryns in boxing.

Battle of the Eurymedon.

468—467 Argos reduces Tiryns (?).

467 Death of Hieron.

465 Revolt of Thasos.

465—464 Attempt to colonise the Nine Ways.

464 Earthquake at Sparta. Revolt of helots. Siege of Ithome. Accession of Artaxerxes to throne of Persia.

463 Surrender of Thasos.

463—462 Cimon in Messenia.

463—461 Ephialtes influential at Athens. The Areopagus deprived of its powers.

462-460 Argos reduces Mycenae. Pay introduced at Athens for the judges of the heliaea. Influence of Pericles begins.

461 Ostracism of Cimon.

461—460 Alliance of Athens and Argos.

460—459 Athens wins Megara. Long Walls of Megara built. Athenian expedition to Egypt.

459 Capture of Ithome. Messenians settled at Naupactus. Capture of Memphis.

459—458 Battle of Halieis. Battle of Cecryphalea.

458 Oresteia of Aeschylus. Zeugitae admitted to archonship. Battle of Aegina. Battle in the Megarid.

Building of Long Walls of Athens.

457 Lacedaemonian expedition to Phocis and Boeotia. Battle of Tanagra

Athenian conquest of Boeotia (battle of Oenophyta; autumn).

457—456 Athenian conquest of Aegina.

456 Megabyzus arrives in Egypt with army and fleet.

456—455 Expedition of Tolmides to Corinthian Gtdf. 454 Catastrophe of Egyptian expedition.

454—453 Treasury of confederacy of Delos transferred from Delos to Athens.

453 Expedition of Pericles to Corinthian Gulf.

453—445 Inclusion of Achaea in Athenian empire.

452—451 Thirty years’ Peace between Argos and Lacedaemon. Five years’ Truce between Athenians and Peloponnesians.

451—450 Law of citizenship at Athens.

459—449 Cimon in Cyprus. Death of Cimon.

448 Peace with Persia. Sacred War. Athens invites the Greeks to restore the temples.

447 Athens loses Boeotia (battle of Coronea). Cleruchies sent to the Chersonese, Euboea, etc.

447—446 Revolt and reduction of Euboea. Athens loses Megara.

446—445 Thirty years’ Peace between Athens and Peloponnesians. Foundation of New Sybaris.

443 Foundation of Thurii.

4443—442 Division of Athenian confederacy into five districts.

442 Ostracism of Thucydides, son of Melesias.

440 Revolt of Samos, and Byzantium.

439 Reduction of Samos.

438 Chryselephantine Athena set up in the Parthenon. 436 Foundation of Amphipolis.

436—435 Sedition at Epidamnus.

435 Sea-victory of Corcyra over Corinth (spring).

433 Defensive alliance of Athens with Corcyra. Battle of Sybota (autumn). Treaties of Athens with Rhegion and Leontini.

433—432 Revolt of Potidaea (winter).

432 The “Megarian decree” passed at Athens (autumn). Battle of Potidaea (c. Sept.).

432—431 Assemblies at Sparta decide on war.

431 First year of the Peloponnesian War.—Theban attack on Plataea (March). First Peloponnesian invasion of Attica (May). Athens wins Sollion and Cephallenia; takes Thronion and Atalanta ; expels Aeginetans from Aegina.

430 Second year of the War.—Outbreak of plague at Athens. Second invasion of Attica. Expedition of Pericles to Argolis and his failure at Epidaurus. Pericles deposed from strategia, tried, fined, and reappointed strategos. Phormio operates in the west: captures Amphilochian Argos. Surrender of Potidaea.

429 Third year of the War.—Peloponnesians besiege Plataea. Sea-victories of Phormio. Death of Pericles (autumn).

428 Fourth year of the War.—Third invasion of Attica. Revolt of Mytilene.

427 Fifth year of the War. —Fourth invasion of Attica. Surrender of Mytilene. Surrender of Plataea. Civil war breaks out in Corcyra. Athens captures Minoa. Expedition of Laches to Sicily.

426 Sixth year of the War.—Aetolian expedition of Demosthenes. Battle of Olpae. Purification of Delos.

425 Seventh year of the War.—Fifth invasion of Attica. Athenians send an expedition to Sicily. Occupation of Pylos; and capture of Spartans in Sphacteria. Triumph of the democracy in Corcyra. Athens wins Anactorion, and occupies Methone. Athens raises the tribute of her allies. Introduction of the triobolon (?). Achamians of Aristophanes. Antiphon’s De Choreuta. Congress of Gela.

424 Eighth year of the War.—Athens wins Oeniadae ; captures Nisaea, with the Long Walls of Megara,* and Cythera. Athenian invasion of Boeotia ; battle of Delion. Brasidas in Thrace. Revolt of Acanthus, Amphipolis, and other cities. Banishment of Thucydides, the historian. Knights of Aristophanes.

423 Ninth year of the War.—Negotiations for peace. One year’s truce (March). Revolt of Scione. Clouds of Aristophanes. Leontini annexed by Syracuse.

422 Tenth year of the War.—Battle of Amphipolis. Peace negotiations. Wasps of Aristophanes.

421 Peace of Nicias (March). Peace of Aristophanes. Capture of Scione.

421—420 Defensive alliance between Athens and Sparta.

420 Alliance of Athens with Argos. Epidaurian war.

418 Battle of Mantinea. Argos forms alliance with Sparta. Eleusinian decree.

417 Ostracism of Hyperbolus. Nicias in Chalcidice.

416 Conquest of Melos. Embassy of Segesta to Athens.

415 Mutilation of the Hermae at Athens. Athenian expedition to Sicily. Recall of Alcibiades.

414 Spring: Birds of Aristophanes. Siege of Syracuse. Gylippus arrives in Sicily.

413 Spartans occupy Decelea. Second Athenian expedition to Sicily. Great battle in the Syracusan Harbour (Sept. 9). Disaster of the Athenians.

412 Revolt of Athenian allies. Treaty of Miletus (between Sparta and Persia). Alcibiades leaves Sparta.

411 Battle of Syme (Jan.). Revolt of Rhodes. Pisander at Athens (. Feb.). Revolt of Abydus and Lampsacus (April). Assembly at Colonus and provision made for a new’ Constitution (May). Council of Four Hundred comes into office (early in June), and governs till September. Revolt of Euboea (Sept.). Four Hundred overthrown and Polity established (Sept.). Battle of Cynossema. Lysistrate and Thesmophoriazusae of Aristophanes. Eva- goras becomes king of Salamis.

410 Battle of Cyzicus. Restoration of Democracy at Athens. Athens recovers Thasos. [Pseudo-Lysias] For Polystratus.

409 Athens recovers Colophon ; loses Pylos and Nisaea.

Carthaginian invasion of Sicily. Destruction of Selinus and Himera.

408 Athens recovers Chalcedon and Byzantium. Gorgias at

Olympia. Warfare of Hermocrates in western Sicily.

407 Cyrus comes down to the coast. Battle of Notion. Alcibiades at Athens.

Battle of Mytilene. Death of Hermocrates. Foundation of Thermae.

406 Battle of Arginusae. Trial of the Generals. Siege of Acragas.

406—405 Conspiracy of st raw bearers at Chios.

405 Lysander navarch. Cyrus called to Susa. Battle of Aegospotami (end of summer).

Dionysius becomes tyrant of Syracuse ; and makes peace with Carthage.

405—404 Blockade of Athens.

404 Surrender of Athens. Long Walls pulled down (April). Psephism of Dracontides (summer) and rule of the Thirty. Thrasybulus seizes Phylc (Dec.). Alliance of Catane and Leontini.

404—403 First expedition of Thirty against Thrasybulus. Death of Theramenes.

403 Lacedaemonian garrison at Athens. Second expedition against Thrasybulus (May).

Thrasybulus seizes Piraeus. Battle of Munychia. King Pausanias at Athens. Fall of Thirty (Sept.). Recall of Lysander. Lysias’ Against Eratosthenes.

Revolt at Syracuse against Dionysius.

403—402 Archonship of Euclides.

403—400 Sicel war of Dionysius. His reduction of Naxos and Catane

401 Expedition of Cyrus. Battle of Cunaxa (summer).

400 Thimbron in Asia Minor (end of summer).

399 Dercyllidas succeeds Thimbron, and gains the Troad. War of Sparta and Elis. Death of Socrates.

398 Sparta makes truce with the satraps ; sends embassy to Susa. Accession of Agesilaus. Dionysius captures Motya.

398—397 Dercyllidas in the Chersonese ; takes Atameus (397, first months).

397 Dercyllidas in Caria; makes truce with the satraps. Conon appointed commander of Persian fleet. Conspiracy of Cinadon at Sparta.

Himilco’s expedition to Sicily. Siege of Syracuse. Foundation of Lilybaeum.

396 First campaign of Agesilaus in Thrygia (autumn). Restoration of Messana. Acoris becomes king of Egypt.

396—393 Sicel war of Dionysius.

395 Campaign of Agesilaus in Lydia. Death of Tissaphernes.

Second campaign of Agesilaus in Phrygia. Revolt of Rhodes. War breaks out in Boeotia. Battle of Haliartus and death of Lysander. Accession of Agesipolis at Sparta. Athens begins to rebuild her Long Walls. Foundation of Tyndaris.

395—394 Confederation of Athens, Thebes, etc., against Sparta.

394 Battle of Corinth (July). Battle of Cnidus (Aug.). Eclipse of sun (Aug. 14). Battle of Coronea (Aug.). Foundation of Mylae.

393 Completion of Long Walls of Athens.

392 Union of Corinth and Argos. Battle of the Long Walls (of Megara). First embassy of Antalcidas to Susa. Second Punic War of Dionysius.

391 Spartans capture Lechaeon. Dionysius besieges Rhegion.

390 Agesilaus celebrates Isthmian games and captures Piraeon.

Iphicrates gains a victory over Spartan hoplites. Teleutias captures an Athenian squadron. Evagoras revolts from Persia. Alliance of Athens with Evagoras and Acoris. Hecatomnus has become satrap of Caria (between 395 and 390).

390—388 Tax of 1/44th; and a war-tax introduced at Athens.

389 Successes of Thrasybulus in the Hellespont. Dionysius besieges Caulonia. Battle of the Elleporus. Ecclesiazusac of Aristophanes.

388 Death of Thrasybulus (first months). Warfare of Anaxibius and Iphicrates in the Hellespont.

388—387 Second mission of Antalcidas to Susa.

387 Capture of Rhegion by Dionysius. Chabrias sent to help Evagoras.

387—386 The King’s Peace.

386 Evagoras defeated at Cition. Chabrias in Egypt.

386—384 Persian siege of Cypriote Salamis.

386—385 Breaking up of Mantinea.

384 Speech of Lysias at Olympic games (July-Aug.). Orontes makes peace with Evagoras.

384—382 Formation of the Chalcidian Confederacy.

383—378 Third Punic War of Dionysius.

383 Death of Acoris.

382 Spartans seize citadel of Thebes (summer).

382—381 Restoration of Plataea.

381 Defeat of Spartans at Olynthus. Siege of Phlius begins. Persia concludes Peace with Evagoras. Accession of Nektanebos I in Egypt.

380 Accession of king Cleombrotus at Sparta. Olympic games for which Isocrates wrote his Panegyric.

379 Suppression of Chalcidian League. Battles of Cabala and Cronion in Sicily.

379—378 Spartans expelled from Theban citadel (winter). Raid of Sphodrias.

378 Alliance of Athens with Thebes. Boeotia invaded by Agesilaus. Iphicrates in Thrace; his marriage (?). Peace of Syracuse with Carthage.

378—377 Foundation of Second Athenian Confederacy. Property tax at Athens.

377 Boeotia invaded by Agesilaus. Defeat of Phoebidas. Mausolus becomes satrap of Caria.

376 Battle of Naxos. Western expedition of Timotheus. Rebellion at Delos. Iphicrates in Persian senice.

375—373 Iphicrates and Pharnabazus in Egypt. Jason of Pherae a member of Athenian league.

374 Peace between Athens and Sparta. Death of Evagoras: accession of Nicocles.

374—373 Peace broken. Lacedaemonians at Corcyra.

373 Iphicrates sent to Corcyra. Trial of Timotheus. Earthquakes in Greece destruction of temple of Delphi (?).

371 Peace of Callias (June). Battle of Leuctra (July). Accession of Agesipolis II at Sparta.

371-369 Foundation of Arcadian League, and of Megalopolis.

370 Epaminondas a Boeotarch. Rebuilding of Mantinea. Death of Jason of Pherae. Accession of Cleombrotus II. at Sparta.

370—369 First Boeotian invasion of Peloponnesus.

369 [Epaminondas a Boeotarch.] Foundation of Messene (first months). Alliance of Athens and Sparta (spring). Second Boeotian invasion of Peloponnesus. First Thessalian expedition of Pelopidas.

369—368 Murder of Alexander of Macedon, and intervention of Iphicrates.

368 Heraea and Orchomenus join Arcadian League. Congress of Delphi (summer). Tearless Battle. Euphron tyrant of Sicyon. Second Thessalian expedition of Pelopidas, and his captivity. First expedition to rescue him. Fourth Punic war of Dionysius.

367 [Epaminondas a Boeotarch.] Greek envoys at Susa. Second expedition to rescue Pelopidas. Death of Dionysius I.

Ariobarzanes revolts from Persia.

366 Third Boeotian invasion of Peloponnesus. Thebans seize Oropus. Alliance of Athens with Arcadia. Death of Lycomedes. Timotheus in eastern Aegean. Isocrates’ Archidamus.

366—365 Partial peace in Peloponnesus.

365 Timotheus wins Samos. Murder of Macedonian regent Ptolemy. Timotheus wins Potidaea and other towns of Chalcidian region. War breaks out between Arcadia and Elis.

364 [Epaminondas a Boeotarch.] Naval expedition of Epaminondas. Third Thessalian expedition of Pelopidas Eclipse of sun, July 13. Battle of Cynoscephalae. Destruction of Orchomenus. Pisatans celebrate Olympian games; battle in the Altis. Athens obtains Sestos. Timotheus besieges Amphipolis.

363 Timotheus recovers Byzantium. Nektanebos I. succeeded by Tachos.

363—362 Timotheus again besieges Amphipolis. Revolts of satraps against Persia.

362 [Epaminondas a Boeotarch.] Battle of Mantinea. Athenianfleet sent to Hellespont. Ariobarzanes crucified.

361 Agesilaus in Egypt. Accession of Nektanebos II. Battle of Peparethus.

361—60 Death of Agesilaus (?).

360—59 Death of king Cotys, and division of Thrace.

359 Death of Perdiccas and accession of Amyntas.

358 Victories of Philip over Paeonians and Illyrians. Death of Artaxerxes II; accession of Artaxerxes III. Ochus.

357 Athens recovers the Chersonese and Euboea. Philip captures Amphipolis. Revolt of Chios, Cos, and Rhodes from Athens. Death of Chabrias. Dion returns to Sicily.

356 Illyrian victory of Philip. Battle of Embata. Phocians seize Delphi. Revolt of Artabazus and Orontes. Arrival of Nypsius at Syracuse.

356—5 Philip captures Pydna and Potidaea. Birth of Alexander.

Composition of Xenophon’s De Vectigalibus.

355 Chares in Asia Minor ; defeats Tithraustes, Isocrates’ De Pace. Trial of Timotheus and Iphicrates (?).

355—4 Peace of Athens with Rhodes, Cos, etc. Isocrates’ Areopagiticus.

354 Battle of Neon. Death of Philomelus. Murder of Dion.

354—3 Demosthenes’ On the Symmories. Tyranny of Callippus atSyracuse.

354—50 Eubulus in charge of the Theoric Fund.

353 Philip captures Methone. Power of Onomarchus in Thessaly. Eubulus hinders Philip from attacking Phocis. Demosthenes’ Far the Afegalopotitans. Death of Mausolus. Demosthenes’ For the Freedom of the Rhodians.

353—351 Hipparinus tyrant of Syracuse.

352 Cersobleptes of Thrace submits to Macedon. Demosthenes’Against Aristocrates. Artabazus flees to Macedonia, and Artaxerxes makes peace with Orontes.

351 Revolt of Phoenicia against Persia; revolt in Cyprus. Demosthenes’ First Philippic. Idrieus succeeds Artemisia in Caria. Nysaeus becomes tyrant at Syracuse.

350 Phocion in Cyprus helping to suppress revolt.

349 Phocion in Euboea. Philip reduces Chalcidice. Alliance of Athens with Olynthus. Demosthenes’ Olynthiacs.

348 Euboea acknowledged independent. Philip captures Olynthus.

347 First Athenian embassy to Philip (end of year). Death of Plato.

346 The Peace of Philocrates. Second embassy to Philip (spring). Philip at Thermopylae. The Phocians crushed. Philip presides at Pythian games. Demosthenes’ De Pace. Isocrates’ Letter to Philip. Second tyranny of Dionysius II.

346—345 Demosthenes impeaches Aeschines. Aeschines’ Against Timarchus

345—343 Persia recovers Egypt.

344 Demosthenes in the Peloponnesus. His Second Philippic. Timoleon sails for Sicily. Battle of Hadranum.

343 Impeachments of Philocrates and Aeschines.

King Archidamus II sails to Italy.

343—342 Alliance of Megara with Athens. Philip in Epirus. Aristotle goes to Macedonia as tutor of Alexander.

342—341 Philip’s conquest of Thrace.

341 Athens sends Diopeithes to the Chersonese. Demosthenes’ On the Chersonese and Third Philippic. Demosthenes at Byzantium. The Euboic League.

340 Sieges of Perinthus and Byzantium. Naval reform at Athens. Violent proceedings at Amphictionic Council (autumn).

339 Thracian expedition of Philip. Amphictions determine to make war on Amphissa.

Battle of the Crimisus.

338 Philip descends into Greece. His campaign in Phocis and Locris. Battle of Chaeronea (Aug.).

Philip in the Peloponnesus. Synedrion of Corinth. Death of Isocrates. Battle of Mandonia.

338—337 Murder of Artaxerxes Ochus and accession of Arses.

338—334 Lycurgus minister of finance at Athens.

337 Second meeting of Synedrion of the Greeks at Corinth.

336 Macedonian forces sent into Asia Minor. Murder of Philip and accession of Alexander (summer)

Alexander’s first descent into Greece; his election as general of the Greeks.

335 Alexander’s campaign in Thrace and Illyria, and his second descent into Greece. Destruction of Thebes (Oct.). Accession of Darius III. Codomannus. Memnon opposes the Macedonians in Asia Minor. Aristotle begins his teaching at Athens.

334 Alexander starts on his expedition against Persia (spring), battle of the Granicus (Thargelion). Conquest of Lydia. Siege of Miletus. Siege of Halicarnassus. Expedition of Alexander of Epirus to Italy.

334—33 Conquest of Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia.

333 Alexander at Gordion. Conquest of Cilicia. Battle of Issus (Nov.).

332 Siege of Tyre (Jan.-July). Submission of Syria and Judaea. Siege of Gaza (Oct.). Conquest of Egypt.

331 Foundation of Alexandria. Submission of Cyrene. Lunar eclipse, Sept. 20; battle of Gaugamela (Oct. I). Alex ander at Babylon (Oct.); at Susa (Dec.). Battle of Megalopolis.

331—330 Battle of Pandosia.

330 Alexander in Persis (Jan.-April); at Ecbatana. Death of Darius (July). Conquest of Hyrcania, Areia, and Drangiana. Foundation of Alexandria Areion and Prophthasia. Execution of Philotas and Parmenio.

Aeschines’ Against Ctesiphon and Demosthenes’ On the Crown. Lycurgus’ Against Leocrates.

330—329 Alexander winters in Drangiana.

329 Partial submission of Gedrosia. Conquest of Arachosia. Foundation of the Arachosian Alexandria.

329—328 Alexander winters in the Cabul region. Foundation of Alexandria under Caucasus.

328 Alexander comes to the Hindu-Kush ; conquers Bactria and Sogdiana. Foundation of Alexandria Eschate.

328—327 Alexander winters at Zariaspa.

327 Alexander at Samarcand (first months); murder of Clitus. Conquest of eastern Sogdiana.

Alexander marries Roxane. Conspiracy of the pages, and execution of Callisthenes.

Alexander recrosses the Hindu-Kush, and prepares for Indian expedition.

327—326 Winter campaigns in the Kunar, Chitral, and Swat regions.

326 Alexander crosses the Indus. Battle of the Hydaspes.

Conquest of the Punjab.

325 Conquest of the Malli. Foundation of towns on the Lower Indus. Alexander sails in the Indian Ocean. His march through Gedrosia (Aug.-Oct.). Voyage of Nearchus (Oct.-Dec.).

324 Macedonian mutiny at Opis. Alexander at Ecbatana. Death of Hephaestion. Harpalus in Greece (spring). Restoration of exiles proclaimed at Olympic games (July- Aug.). Harpalus’ trial at Athens; speeches of Hypereides and Dinarchus.

324—324 Subjugation of the Cossaeans.

323 Alexander at Babylon. Funeral of Hephaestion (May).

Death of Alexander (June 13). Greece revolts against Macedonia.

323—322 Siege of Lamia.

322 Battle of Crannon. Funeral oration of Hypereides. Change of the Athenian Constitution. Death of Demosthenes (Oct.). Death of Aristotle. Death of Lycurgus