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The Political and Military Organisation of the Othoman Empire, by which the Greeks were retained in Subjection.—

A.D. 1463-1684.



The Naval Conquests of the Ottomans in Greece.—

A.D. 1458-1684.



Social Condition of the Greeks until the Extinction of the Tribute of Christian Children.—

A.D. 1458-1676.



History of the Venetian Domination in Greece.—

A.D. 1684-1718.



The Causes and Events which prepared the Greeks for Independence.

A.D. 1718-1821.



1397- Bayezid I establishes the timariot system in Thessaly.

1453- Mohammed I Irepeoples Constantinople.

      Re-establishes the Orthodox Greek Church,

1454. Insurrection of Albanian population in the Morea.

1456. Mohammed II defeated at Belgrade.

1458.  Walls of Constantinople repaired, and Castle of Seven Towers


1459.  Servia annexed to the Othoman empire.

       Amastris taken from the Genoese.

1460.  Mohammed II conquers the Morea.

       Athens annexed to the Othoman empire.

1461.  Conquest of empire of Trebizond.

1462.  Mytilene annexed to Othoman empire.

1463.  Argos occupied by Othoman troops.

       War with Venice.

1466.  Athens taken by Venetians, and abandoned.

1467.  17th January, death of Skanderbeg at Alessio.

1469.  Earthquake at Santa Maura, Cephalonia, and Zante.

1470.  Conquest of Negrepont.

1475. Kaffa and Tana taken from the Genoese.

1477. Croïa surrenders to the Othomans.

1479. Peace between Mohammed II and Venice.

      Zante and Cephalonia taken by Mohammed II from Leonard Tocco, despot of Arta.

1480.  Othoman army defeated at Rhodes.

1481.  Death of Mohammed II.

1484. Venice restores Cephalonia to Bayezid II, and pays a tribute of five hundred ducats annually for Zante.

1489. Catherine Comara cedes Cyprus to Venice.

1493. Jews expelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella.

1494. Andrew Palaeologos, son of Thomas, despot in the Pelopon­nesus, cedes his rights to it and to the Byzantine empire to Charles VIII of France, but that cession not being accepted within the stipulated time

1498. He cedes his rights to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.

1500.  Bayezid II takes Lepanto, Modon, Coron, and Durazzo, from


1501.  Mohammedans expelled from Spain if they refuse to be baptized.

1502.  Peace between Bayezid II and Venice. The republic cedes Santa Maura to the Sultan, but retains Cephalonia.

1509.  Great earthquake at Constantinople.

1510.  Walls of Constantinople repaired.

1512. Bogdan, Prince of Moldavia, becomes tributary to Sultan Selim I.

1515. Great fire at Constantinople.

1516. Vallachia pays an annual tribute of six hundred Christian children to the sultan.

1522. Conquest of Rhodes by Suleiman I.

1526. Vienna besieged.

1535. First public treaty of alliance between the Othoman empire and the King of France.

      Supremacy of the Othoman navy in the Mediterranean.

1537. Defeat of the Othomans at Corfu.

      Barbarossa takes Paros, Skyros, Patmos, and Stympalea.

1540. Treaty of peace between Suleiman I and Venice. The re­public cedes Monemvasia and Nauplia to the Sultan.

1563. Great inundation, caused by rain, at Constantinople.

1565.  Othoman expedition against Malta defeated.

1566.  Chios and Naxos annexed to the Othoman empire.

       Rebellion of the Janissaries.

1570.  Morescoes, descendants of Mohammedans in Spain, driven to rebellion by persecution.

1571.  Conquest of Cyprus by Othomans.

       15th of October, battle of Lepanto.

1572.  Tunis taken by Don Juan of Austria.

1573.  Treaty of peace between the Othoman empire and Venice.

1574.  Tunis retaken by the Othoman fleet.

1591. Thirty thousand workmen employed to construct a canal at Nicomedia.

1593. First commercial treaty between the Sultan and England.

1600. Rebellion of the Janissaries.

1609. Final expulsion of the Morescoes from Spain by Philip III.

1614. Maina compelled to pay haratch.

1622. Great rebellion of Janissaries and Sipahis against Sultan Othman II.

1624. Cossacks plunder the shores of the Bosphorus.

      Piracy prevalent in the Mediterranean.

1632. Great rebellion of troops at Constantinople.

1642. Great earthquake at Constantinople.

      Corsairs and pirates continue their ravages in the Archi­pelago.

1645. Othoman troops invade Crete.

1648. Earthquake at Constantinople.

1650. New island rises out of the sea at Santorin.

1653. Great earthquake at Constantinople.

1656. Great insurrection at Constantinople.

1669.  Conquest of Crete completed by capitulation of Candia. Treaty of peace between the Othoman empire and Venice.

      Foundation of the official power of the Phanariots by the rank conceded to Panayotaki of Chios, dragoman of Achmet Kueprili.

1670.  Subjugation of Maina. Forts of Zamata, Porto Vitylo, and Passava, armed and garrisoned by Turks.

1671 to 1684. Corsairs and pirates infest the coasts and islands of Greece and Asia Minor in great numbers.

1672 and 1673. Mainates emigrate to Apulia and Corsica.

1675. Disputes of the Greeks and Catholics concerning the possession of the Holy Places at Jerusalem.

1683. Siege of Vienna by Kara Mustapha.

1685. The Venetians commence the conquest of the Morea. Morosini takes Coron.

1687.  Athens taken by Morosini. Parthenon ruined.

      Plague in the Venetian army.

      Great fire at Constantinople.

1688.  Defeat of Morosini at Negrepont.

1690. Earthquake at Constantinople.

1692. Fire at Constantinople.

1699. Peace of Carlovitz.

1711.  Defeat of Peter the Great. Treaty of the Pruth.

1712.  Commencement of Phanariot domination in Moldavia.

1715.  Reconquest of the Morea by Ali Kumurgi.

1716.  Commencement of Phanariot domination in Vallachia.

1718.  Peace of Passarovitz.

1719.  Great fire and earthquake at Constantinople.

1720.  Treaty of perpetual peace between Turkey and Russia.

1736 to 1739. Marshal Munich’s campaigns against the Crimea and Turkey.

1739.  Treaty of Belgrade.

1740.  Great fire at Constantinople.

1741.  Fire at Constantinople.

1746. Fire at Constantinople.

1751. Piracies on the coast of Maina and in the Archipelago.

      Tumult of Greeks at Constantinople against the Patriarch and the Phanariots.

1754.  Great earthquake at Constantinople.

1755.  Great fire at Constantinople.

1761. First treaty between Turkey and Prussia.

      Persecution of Catholic Armenians at Constantinople.

1764. Insurrection of Greeks in Cyprus.

1766.  Earthquake at Constantinople.

1767.  Great fires at Constantinople and at Pera.

1770. Great fire at Constantinople.

      Russian invasion of the Morea.

      Sphakiots compelled to pay haratch.

1774. Treaty of Kutchuk Kainardji.

1787. War of Suliots with Ali Pasha of Joannina.

      Russian privateering in the Archipelago.

1792. Treaty of Yassi.

1797. Ionian Islands surrendered to France by the Treaty of Campo Formio.

      Ali Pasha massacres the Christian Albanians of Chimara.

1800. Russia cedes the continental dependencies of the Ionian Islands, Parga, Prevesa, etc., to Turkey.

      Establishment of the Ionian republic.

1807. Russia cedes the Ionian Islands to France by the treaty of Tilsit.

1815. Ionian republic placed under the protection of Great Britain by the treaty of Vienna.

1819. Parga delivered to Turkey by Great Britain.

1821. Commencement of the Greek Revolution.




List of the Othoman Sultans.

1307-1325. Othman, from the death of the last Seljouk Sultan of Roum or Iconium.

1325-1359. Orkhan, son of Othman

1359-1389. Murad I, son of Orkhan

1389-1402. Bayezid I, son of Murad I

Interregnum under Suleiman, Musa, and Isa, sons of Bayezid I.

1413-1421. Mohammed I, son of Bayezid I.

1421-1451. Murad II, son of Mohammed I.

1451-1481. Mohammed II., son of Murad II.

1481-1512. Bayezid II., son of Mohammed II.

1512-1520. Selim I., son of Bayezid II.

1520-1566. Suleiman I., the Legislator, son of Selim I.

1566-1574. Selim II., son of Suleiman I.

1574-1595. Murad III., son of Selim II.

1595-1603. Mohammed III., son of Murad III.

1603-1617. Achmet I., son of Mohammed III.

1617-1618. Mustapha I., son of Mohammed III. (dethroned)

1618-1622.Othman II., son of Achmet I. (strangled).

1622-1623. Second reign of Mustapha I (dethroned).

1623-1640. Murad IV., son of Achmet I.

1640-1649. Ibrahim, son of Achmet I. (dethroned)

1649-1687. Mohammed IV., son of Ibrahim (dethroned)

1687-1691. Suleiman II., son of Ibrahim

1691-1695. Achmet II., son of Ibrahim

1695-1703. Mustapha II, son of Mohammed IV. (dethroned)

1703-1730. Achmet III., son of Mohammed IV. (dethroned)

1730-1754. Mahmud I., son of Mustapha II.

1754-1757. Othman III., son of Mustapha II.

1757-1774. Mustapha III., son of Achmet III.

1774-1789. Abdul-hamid, son of Achmet III.

1789-1807. Selim III., son of Mustapha III. (dethroned)

1807-1808. Mustapha IV., son of Abdul-hamid (dethroned)

1808-1839. Mahmud II., son of Abdul-hamid.

1839-1861. Abdul-Medjid, son of Mahmud II.

1861-1876. Abdul-Aziz, son of Mahmud II.



List of Signors of Mytilene of the Family of Gattilusio.

1. Francis I.  1355

2. Jacobus, son of Francis I, was Signor in    1395

3. Francis II.

4. Dorinus, brother of Francis II. (?) 1455

Signor of Mytilene (Lesbos), Lemnos, and Phocaea.

5. Dominicus or Kyriakos, son of Dorinus1455-1458

Murdered by his brother Nicolas

6. Nicolas, brother of Dominicus      1458-1462

Surrendered Mytilene to Mohammed II; embraced Islam, and was soon after strangled by order of the sultan.


List of Phanariot Voivodes or Hospodars of Vallachia and Moldavia.



1716.  Nicolas Mavrocordatos I.

1717.  John Mavrocordatos I.

1719. Nicolas Mavrocordatos I.

1731. Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1733. Gregorios Ghika I.

1735. Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1741. Michael Rakoviza I.

1744. Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1748.  Gregorios Ghika I.

1752.  Matthew Ghika I.

1753.  Constantine Rakoviza I.

1756.  Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1758. Skarlatos Ghika I.

1761. Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1763.  Constantine Rakoviza I.

1764.  Stephen Rakoviza.

1765.  Skarlatos Ghika I.

1766.  Alexander Ghika.

1768.  Gregorios Ghika II.



1709. Nicolas Mavrocordatos I.

1716. Michael Rakoviza I.

1727. Gregorios Ghika the elder.

1733 Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1735- Gregorios Ghika I.

1741. Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1743. John Mavrocordatos II.

1747.  Gregorios Ghika I.

1748.  Constantine Mavrocordatos I.

1749.  Constantine Rakoviza I.

1753. Matthew Ghika I.

1756.  Constantine Rakoviza I.

1757.  Skarlatos Ghika I.

1758.  John Th. Kallimaki.

1761. Gregorios Kallimaki I.

1764. Gregorios Ghika II.

1766. Gregorios Kallimaki II

1769.  Constantine Mavrocordatos I.


Military occupation of the two provinces by the Russians from

1770 to 1774.


1774. Alexander Hypsilanti I.

1778. Nicolas Karadja.   

1783. Michael Soutzo I.  

1786.  Nicolas Mavroyeni.

1787. Alexander Hypsilanti I


1774. Gregorios Ghika II.

1777. Constantine Mourouzi.

1782. Alexander Mavrocordatos I.

1785. Alexander Mavrocordatos II


Military occupation of Vallachia and Moldavia by the Russians, 1788 to 1789.


1791.  Michael Soutzo I.           

1793.  Alexander Mourouzi I.      

1796. Alexander Hypsilanti I.      

1798.  Constantine Handjerli.      

1799.  Alexander Mourouzi I.      

1801.  Michael Soutzo I.        

1802. Alexander Soutzo I.            

1802. Constantine Hypsilanti I.    

1806. Alexander Soutzo I.

1806. Constantine Hypsilanti I



1792. Alexander Mourouzi I.

1793. Michael Soutzo I.

1794. Alexander Kallimaki.

1799. Constantine Hypsilanti I.

1801. Michael Soutzo I.

1802. Alexander Mourouzi I.

1804. Skarlatos Kallimaki I.

1806. Alexander Mourouzi I.


Military occupation of Vallachia and Moldavia by the Russians, from 1808 to 1812.


1812. John Karadja.                 

1818. Alexander Soutzo I.           


1812. Skarlatos Kallimaki I.

1819. Michael Soutzo II.

Insurrection at the commencement of the Greek Revolution, 1821.